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Felix Draxler, Peter Sorrenson, Lea Zimmermann, Armand Rousselot, Ullrich Köthe

Normalizing Flows are generative models that directly maximize the likelihood. Previously, the design of normalizing flows was largely constrained by the need for analytical invertibility. We overcome this constraint by a training procedure that uses an efficient estimator for the gradient of the change of variables formula. This enables any dimension-preserving neural network to serve as a generative model through maximum likelihood training. Our approach allows placing the emphasis on tailoring inductive biases precisely to the task at hand. Specifically, we achieve excellent results in molecule generation benchmarks utilizing $E(n)$-equivariant networks. Moreover, our method is competitive in an inverse problem benchmark, while employing off-the-shelf ResNet architectures.

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Lasse Elsemüller, Hans Olischläger, Marvin Schmitt, Paul-Christian Bürkner, Ullrich Köthe, Stefan T. Radev

Bayesian inference is a powerful framework for making probabilistic inferences and decisions under uncertainty. Fundamental choices in modern Bayesian workflows concern the specification of the likelihood function and prior distributions, the posterior approximator, and the data. Each choice can significantly influence model-based inference and subsequent decisions, thereby necessitating sensitivity analysis. In this work, we propose a multifaceted approach to integrate sensitivity analyses into amortized Bayesian inference (ABI, i.e., simulation-based inference with neural networks). First, we utilize weight sharing to encode the structural similarities between alternative likelihood and prior specifications in the training process with minimal computational overhead. Second, we leverage the rapid inference of neural networks to assess sensitivity to various data perturbations or pre-processing procedures. In contrast to most other Bayesian approaches, both steps circumvent the costly bottleneck of refitting the model(s) for each choice of likelihood, prior, or dataset. Finally, we propose to use neural network ensembles to evaluate variation in results induced by unreliable approximation on unseen data. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method in applied modeling problems, ranging from the estimation of disease outbreak dynamics and global warming thresholds to the comparison of human decision-making models. Our experiments showcase how our approach enables practitioners to effectively unveil hidden relationships between modeling choices and inferential conclusions.

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Marvin Schmitt, Daniel Habermann, Paul-Christian Bürkner, Ullrich Köthe, Stefan T. Radev

We propose a method to improve the efficiency and accuracy of amortized Bayesian inference (ABI) by leveraging universal symmetries in the probabilistic joint model $p(\theta, y)$ of parameters $\theta$ and data $y$. In a nutshell, we invert Bayes' theorem and estimate the marginal likelihood based on approximate representations of the joint model. Upon perfect approximation, the marginal likelihood is constant across all parameter values by definition. However, approximation error leads to undesirable variance in the marginal likelihood estimates across different parameter values. We formulate violations of this symmetry as a loss function to accelerate the learning dynamics of conditional neural density estimators. We apply our method to a bimodal toy problem with an explicit likelihood (likelihood-based) and a realistic model with an implicit likelihood (simulation-based).

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Tim J. Adler, Jan-Hinrich Nölke, Annika Reinke, Minu Dietlinde Tizabi, Sebastian Gruber, Dasha Trofimova, Lynton Ardizzone, Paul F. Jaeger, Florian Buettner, Ullrich Köthe, Lena Maier-Hein

Current deep learning-based solutions for image analysis tasks are commonly incapable of handling problems to which multiple different plausible solutions exist. In response, posterior-based methods such as conditional Diffusion Models and Invertible Neural Networks have emerged; however, their translation is hampered by a lack of research on adequate validation. In other words, the way progress is measured often does not reflect the needs of the driving practical application. Closing this gap in the literature, we present the first systematic framework for the application-driven validation of posterior-based methods in inverse problems. As a methodological novelty, it adopts key principles from the field of object detection validation, which has a long history of addressing the question of how to locate and match multiple object instances in an image. Treating modes as instances enables us to perform mode-centric validation, using well-interpretable metrics from the application perspective. We demonstrate the value of our framework through instantiations for a synthetic toy example and two medical vision use cases: pose estimation in surgery and imaging-based quantification of functional tissue parameters for diagnostics. Our framework offers key advantages over common approaches to posterior validation in all three examples and could thus revolutionize performance assessment in inverse problems.

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Ullrich Köthe

Change-of-variables (CoV) formulas allow to reduce complicated probability densities to simpler ones by a learned transformation with tractable Jacobian determinant. They are thus powerful tools for maximum-likelihood learning, Bayesian inference, outlier detection, model selection, etc. CoV formulas have been derived for a large variety of model types, but this information is scattered over many separate works. We present a systematic treatment from the unifying perspective of encoder/decoder architectures, which collects 28 CoV formulas in a single place, reveals interesting relationships between seemingly diverse methods, emphasizes important distinctions that are not always clear in the literature, and identifies surprising gaps for future research.

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Stefan T Radev, Marvin Schmitt, Lukas Schumacher, Lasse Elsemüller, Valentin Pratz, Yannik Schälte, Ullrich Köthe, Paul-Christian Bürkner

Modern Bayesian inference involves a mixture of computational techniques for estimating, validating, and drawing conclusions from probabilistic models as part of principled workflows for data analysis. Typical problems in Bayesian workflows are the approximation of intractable posterior distributions for diverse model types and the comparison of competing models of the same process in terms of their complexity and predictive performance. This manuscript introduces the Python library BayesFlow for simulation-based training of established neural network architectures for amortized data compression and inference. Amortized Bayesian inference, as implemented in BayesFlow, enables users to train custom neural networks on model simulations and re-use these networks for any subsequent application of the models. Since the trained networks can perform inference almost instantaneously, the upfront neural network training is quickly amortized.

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Felix Draxler, Lars Kühmichel, Armand Rousselot, Jens Müller, Christoph Schnörr, Ullrich Köthe

Gaussianization is a simple generative model that can be trained without backpropagation. It has shown compelling performance on low dimensional data. As the dimension increases, however, it has been observed that the convergence speed slows down. We show analytically that the number of required layers scales linearly with the dimension for Gaussian input. We argue that this is because the model is unable to capture dependencies between dimensions. Empirically, we find the same linear increase in cost for arbitrary input $p(x)$, but observe favorable scaling for some distributions. We explore potential speed-ups and formulate challenges for further research.

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