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Abstract:We improve upon previous oblivious sketching and turnstile streaming results for $\ell_1$ and logistic regression, giving a much smaller sketching dimension achieving $O(1)$-approximation and yielding an efficient optimization problem in the sketch space. Namely, we achieve for any constant $c>0$ a sketching dimension of $\tilde{O}(d^{1+c})$ for $\ell_1$ regression and $\tilde{O}(\mu d^{1+c})$ for logistic regression, where $\mu$ is a standard measure that captures the complexity of compressing the data. For $\ell_1$-regression our sketching dimension is near-linear and improves previous work which either required $\Omega(\log d)$-approximation with this sketching dimension, or required a larger $\operatorname{poly}(d)$ number of rows. Similarly, for logistic regression previous work had worse $\operatorname{poly}(\mu d)$ factors in its sketching dimension. We also give a tradeoff that yields a $1+\varepsilon$ approximation in input sparsity time by increasing the total size to $(d\log(n)/\varepsilon)^{O(1/\varepsilon)}$ for $\ell_1$ and to $(\mu d\log(n)/\varepsilon)^{O(1/\varepsilon)}$ for logistic regression. Finally, we show that our sketch can be extended to approximate a regularized version of logistic regression where the data-dependent regularizer corresponds to the variance of the individual logistic losses.

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Abstract:A common method in training neural networks is to initialize all the weights to be independent Gaussian vectors. We observe that by instead initializing the weights into independent pairs, where each pair consists of two identical Gaussian vectors, we can significantly improve the convergence analysis. While a similar technique has been studied for random inputs [Daniely, NeurIPS 2020], it has not been analyzed with arbitrary inputs. Using this technique, we show how to significantly reduce the number of neurons required for two-layer ReLU networks, both in the under-parameterized setting with logistic loss, from roughly $\gamma^{-8}$ [Ji and Telgarsky, ICLR 2020] to $\gamma^{-2}$, where $\gamma$ denotes the separation margin with a Neural Tangent Kernel, as well as in the over-parameterized setting with squared loss, from roughly $n^4$ [Song and Yang, 2019] to $n^2$, implicitly also improving the recent running time bound of [Brand, Peng, Song and Weinstein, ITCS 2021]. For the under-parameterized setting we also prove new lower bounds that improve upon prior work, and that under certain assumptions, are best possible.

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Abstract:We study the $p$-generalized probit regression model, which is a generalized linear model for binary responses. It extends the standard probit model by replacing its link function, the standard normal cdf, by a $p$-generalized normal distribution for $p\in[1, \infty)$. The $p$-generalized normal distributions \citep{Sub23} are of special interest in statistical modeling because they fit much more flexibly to data. Their tail behavior can be controlled by choice of the parameter $p$, which influences the model's sensitivity to outliers. Special cases include the Laplace, the Gaussian, and the uniform distributions. We further show how the maximum likelihood estimator for $p$-generalized probit regression can be approximated efficiently up to a factor of $(1+\varepsilon)$ on large data by combining sketching techniques with importance subsampling to obtain a small data summary called coreset.

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Abstract:What guarantees are possible for solving logistic regression in one pass over a data stream? To answer this question, we present the first data oblivious sketch for logistic regression. Our sketch can be computed in input sparsity time over a turnstile data stream and reduces the size of a $d$-dimensional data set from $n$ to only $\operatorname{poly}(\mu d\log n)$ weighted points, where $\mu$ is a useful parameter which captures the complexity of compressing the data. Solving (weighted) logistic regression on the sketch gives an $O(\log n)$-approximation to the original problem on the full data set. We also show how to obtain an $O(1)$-approximation with slight modifications. Our sketches are fast, simple, easy to implement, and our experiments demonstrate their practicality.

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