Generative modeling has experienced substantial progress in recent years, particularly in text-to-image and text-to-video synthesis. However, the medical field has not yet fully exploited the potential of large-scale foundational models for synthetic data generation. In this paper, we introduce GenerateCT, the first method for text-conditional computed tomography (CT) generation, addressing the limitations in 3D medical imaging research and making our entire framework open-source. GenerateCT consists of a pre-trained large language model, a transformer-based text-conditional 3D chest CT generation architecture, and a text-conditional spatial super-resolution diffusion model. We also propose CT-ViT, which efficiently compresses CT volumes while preserving auto-regressiveness in-depth, enabling the generation of 3D CT volumes with variable numbers of axial slices. Our experiments demonstrate that GenerateCT can produce realistic, high-resolution, and high-fidelity 3D chest CT volumes consistent with medical language text prompts. We further investigate the potential of GenerateCT by training a model using generated CT volumes for multi-abnormality classification of chest CT volumes. Our contributions provide a valuable foundation for future research in text-conditional 3D medical image generation and have the potential to accelerate advancements in medical imaging research. Our code, pre-trained models, and generated data are available at https://github.com/ibrahimethemhamamci/GenerateCT.