Recently, prompt-based fine-tuning has garnered considerable interest as a core technique for few-shot text classification task. This approach reformulates the fine-tuning objective to align with the Masked Language Modeling (MLM) objective. Leveraging unlabeled data, prompt-based self-training has shown greater effectiveness in binary and three-class classification. However, prompt-based self-training for multi-class classification has not been adequately investigated, despite its significant applicability to real-world scenarios. Moreover, extending current methods to multi-class classification suffers from the verbalizer that extracts the predicted value of manually pre-defined single label word for each class from MLM predictions. Consequently, we introduce a novel, efficient verbalizer structure, named Mapping-free Automatic Verbalizer (MAV). Comprising two fully connected layers, MAV serves as a trainable verbalizer that automatically extracts the requisite word features for classification by capitalizing on all available information from MLM predictions. Experimental results on five multi-class classification datasets indicate MAV's superior self-training efficacy.
As the IT industry advances, system log data becomes increasingly crucial. Many computer systems rely on log texts for management due to restricted access to source code. The need for log anomaly detection is growing, especially in real-world applications, but identifying anomalies in rapidly accumulating logs remains a challenging task. Traditional deep learning-based anomaly detection models require dataset-specific training, leading to corresponding delays. Notably, most methods only focus on sequence-level log information, which makes the detection of subtle anomalies harder, and often involve inference processes that are difficult to utilize in real-time. We introduce RAPID, a model that capitalizes on the inherent features of log data to enable anomaly detection without training delays, ensuring real-time capability. RAPID treats logs as natural language, extracting representations using pre-trained language models. Given that logs can be categorized based on system context, we implement a retrieval-based technique to contrast test logs with the most similar normal logs. This strategy not only obviates the need for log-specific training but also adeptly incorporates token-level information, ensuring refined and robust detection, particularly for unseen logs. We also propose the core set technique, which can reduce the computational cost needed for comparison. Experimental results show that even without training on log data, RAPID demonstrates competitive performance compared to prior models and achieves the best performance on certain datasets. Through various research questions, we verified its capability for real-time detection without delay.
This paper describes the DSBA submissions to the Prompting Large Language Models as Explainable Metrics shared task, where systems were submitted to two tracks: small and large summarization tracks. With advanced Large Language Models (LLMs) such as GPT-4, evaluating the quality of Natural Language Generation (NLG) has become increasingly paramount. Traditional similarity-based metrics such as BLEU and ROUGE have shown to misalign with human evaluation and are ill-suited for open-ended generation tasks. To address this issue, we explore the potential capability of LLM-based metrics, especially leveraging open-source LLMs. In this study, wide range of prompts and prompting techniques are systematically analyzed with three approaches: prompting strategy, score aggregation, and explainability. Our research focuses on formulating effective prompt templates, determining the granularity of NLG quality scores and assessing the impact of in-context examples on LLM-based evaluation. Furthermore, three aggregation strategies are compared to identify the most reliable method for aggregating NLG quality scores. To examine explainability, we devise a strategy that generates rationales for the scores and analyzes the characteristics of the explanation produced by the open-source LLMs. Extensive experiments provide insights regarding evaluation capabilities of open-source LLMs and suggest effective prompting strategies.
* Eval4NLP 2023 shared task winner on both Small and Large model Track
As the e-commerce market continues to expand and online transactions proliferate, customer reviews have emerged as a critical element in shaping the purchasing decisions of prospective buyers. Previous studies have endeavored to identify key aspects of customer reviews through the development of sentiment analysis models and topic models. However, extracting specific dissatisfaction factors remains a challenging task. In this study, we delineate the pain point detection problem and propose Painsight, an unsupervised framework for automatically extracting distinct dissatisfaction factors from customer reviews without relying on ground truth labels. Painsight employs pre-trained language models to construct sentiment analysis and topic models, leveraging attribution scores derived from model gradients to extract dissatisfaction factors. Upon application of the proposed methodology to customer review data spanning five product categories, we successfully identified and categorized dissatisfaction factors within each group, as well as isolated factors for each type. Notably, Painsight outperformed benchmark methods, achieving substantial performance enhancements and exceptional results in human evaluations.
Time-series representation learning can extract representations from data with temporal dynamics and sparse labels. When labeled data are sparse but unlabeled data are abundant, contrastive learning, i.e., a framework to learn a latent space where similar samples are close to each other while dissimilar ones are far from each other, has shown outstanding performance. This strategy can encourage varied consistency of time-series representations depending on the positive pair selection and contrastive loss. We propose a new time-series representation learning method by combining the advantages of self-supervised tasks related to contextual, temporal, and transformation consistency. It allows the network to learn general representations for various downstream tasks and domains. Specifically, we first adopt data preprocessing to generate positive and negative pairs for each self-supervised task. The model then performs contextual, temporal, and transformation contrastive learning and is optimized jointly using their contrastive losses. We further investigate an uncertainty weighting approach to enable effective multi-task learning by considering the contribution of each consistency. We evaluate the proposed framework on three downstream tasks: time-series classification, forecasting, and anomaly detection. Experimental results show that our method not only outperforms the benchmark models on these downstream tasks, but also shows efficiency in cross-domain transfer learning.
Dialogue state tracking (DST) is a core sub-module of a dialogue system, which aims to extract the appropriate belief state (domain-slot-value) from a system and user utterances. Most previous studies have attempted to improve performance by increasing the size of the pre-trained model or using additional features such as graph relations. In this study, we propose dialogue state tracking with entity adaptive pre-training (DSTEA), a system in which key entities in a sentence are more intensively trained by the encoder of the DST model. DSTEA extracts important entities from input dialogues in four ways, and then applies selective knowledge masking to train the model effectively. Although DSTEA conducts only pre-training without directly infusing additional knowledge to the DST model, it achieved better performance than the best-known benchmark models on MultiWOZ 2.0, 2.1, and 2.2. The effectiveness of DSTEA was verified through various comparative experiments with regard to the entity type and different adaptive settings.
We describe an approach used in the Generic Boundary Event Captioning challenge at the Long-Form Video Understanding Workshop held at CVPR 2022. We designed a Rich Encoder-decoder framework for Video Event CAptioner (REVECA) that utilizes spatial and temporal information from the video to generate a caption for the corresponding the event boundary. REVECA uses frame position embedding to incorporate information before and after the event boundary. Furthermore, it employs features extracted using the temporal segment network and temporal-based pairwise difference method to learn temporal information. A semantic segmentation mask for the attentional pooling process is adopted to learn the subject of an event. Finally, LoRA is applied to fine-tune the image encoder to enhance the learning efficiency. REVECA yielded an average score of 50.97 on the Kinetics-GEBC test data, which is an improvement of 10.17 over the baseline method. Our code is available in https://github.com/TooTouch/REVECA.
* The IEEE/CVF Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition Conference
(CVPR). LOng-form VidEo Understanding (LOVEU) workshop
Dialogue state tracking (DST) aims to extract essential information from multi-turn dialogue situations and take appropriate actions. A belief state, one of the core pieces of information, refers to the subject and its specific content, and appears in the form of domain-slot-value. The trained model predicts "accumulated" belief states in every turn, and joint goal accuracy and slot accuracy are mainly used to evaluate the prediction; however, we specify that the current evaluation metrics have a critical limitation when evaluating belief states accumulated as the dialogue proceeds, especially in the most used MultiWOZ dataset. Additionally, we propose relative slot accuracy to complement existing metrics. Relative slot accuracy does not depend on the number of predefined slots, and allows intuitive evaluation by assigning relative scores according to the turn of each dialogue. This study also encourages not solely the reporting of joint goal accuracy, but also various complementary metrics in DST tasks for the sake of a realistic evaluation.
Image anomaly detection problems aim to determine whether an image is abnormal, and to detect anomalous areas. These methods are actively used in various fields such as manufacturing, medical care, and intelligent information. Encoder-decoder structures have been widely used in the field of anomaly detection because they can easily learn normal patterns in an unsupervised learning environment and calculate a score to identify abnormalities through a reconstruction error indicating the difference between input and reconstructed images. Therefore, current image anomaly detection methods have commonly used convolutional encoder-decoders to extract normal information through the local features of images. However, they are limited in that only local features of the image can be utilized when constructing a normal representation owing to the characteristics of convolution operations using a filter of fixed size. Therefore, we propose a vision transformer-based encoder-decoder model, named AnoViT, designed to reflect normal information by additionally learning the global relationship between image patches, which is capable of both image anomaly detection and localization. The proposed approach constructs a feature map that maintains the existing location information of individual patches by using the embeddings of all patches passed through multiple self-attention layers. The proposed AnoViT model performed better than the convolution-based model on three benchmark datasets. In MVTecAD, which is a representative benchmark dataset for anomaly localization, it showed improved results on 10 out of 15 classes compared with the baseline. Furthermore, the proposed method showed good performance regardless of the class and type of the anomalous area when localization results were evaluated qualitatively.