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University of Corunna, Spain

Abstract:In temporal extensions of Answer Set Programming (ASP) based on linear-time, the behavior of dynamic systems is captured by sequences of states. While this representation reflects their relative order, it abstracts away the specific times associated with each state. In many applications, however, timing constraints are important like, for instance, when planning and scheduling go hand in hand. We address this by developing a metric extension of linear-time Dynamic Equilibrium Logic, in which dynamic operators are constrained by intervals over integers. The resulting Metric Dynamic Equilibrium Logic provides the foundation of an ASP-based approach for specifying qualitative and quantitative dynamic constraints. As such, it constitutes the most general among a whole spectrum of temporal extensions of Equilibrium Logic. In detail, we show that it encompasses Temporal, Dynamic, Metric, and regular Equilibrium Logic, as well as its classic counterparts once the law of the excluded middle is added.

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Abstract:Extensions of Answer Set Programming with language constructs from temporal logics, such as temporal equilibrium logic over finite traces (TELf), provide an expressive computational framework for modeling dynamic applications. In this paper, we study the so-called past-present syntactic subclass, which consists of a set of logic programming rules whose body references to the past and head to the present. Such restriction ensures that the past remains independent of the future, which is the case in most dynamic domains. We extend the definitions of completion and loop formulas to the case of past-present formulas, which allows capturing the temporal stable models of a set of past-present temporal programs by means of an LTLf expression.

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Abstract:In temporal extensions of Answer Set Programming (ASP) based on linear-time, the behavior of dynamic systems is captured by sequences of states. While this representation reflects their relative order, it abstracts away the specific times associated with each state. However, timing constraints are important in many applications like, for instance, when planning and scheduling go hand in hand. We address this by developing a metric extension of linear-time temporal equilibrium logic, in which temporal operators are constrained by intervals over natural numbers. The resulting Metric Equilibrium Logic provides the foundation of an ASP-based approach for specifying qualitative and quantitative dynamic constraints. To this end, we define a translation of metric formulas into monadic first-order formulas and give a correspondence between their models in Metric Equilibrium Logic and Monadic Quantified Equilibrium Logic, respectively. Interestingly, our translation provides a blue print for implementation in terms of ASP modulo difference constraints.

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Abstract:In this work, we present a flexible method for explaining, in human readable terms, the predictions made by decision trees used as decision support in liver transplantation. The decision trees have been obtained through machine learning applied on a dataset collected at the liver transplantation unit at the Coru\~na University Hospital Center and are used to predict long term (five years) survival after transplantation. The method we propose is based on the representation of the decision tree as a set of rules in a logic program (LP) that is further annotated with text messages. This logic program is then processed using the tool xclingo (based on Answer Set Programming) that allows building compound explanations depending on the annotation text and the rules effectively fired when a given input is provided. We explore two alternative LP encodings: one in which rules respect the tree structure (more convenient to reflect the learning process) and one where each rule corresponds to a (previously simplified) tree path (more readable for decision making).

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Abstract:We explore different ways of implementing temporal constraints expressed in an extension of Answer Set Programming (ASP) with language constructs from dynamic logic. Foremost, we investigate how automata can be used for enforcing such constraints. The idea is to transform a dynamic constraint into an automaton expressed in terms of a logic program that enforces the satisfaction of the original constraint. What makes this approach attractive is its independence of time stamps and the potential to detect unsatisfiability. On the one hand, we elaborate upon a transformation of dynamic formulas into alternating automata that relies on meta-programming in ASP. This is the first application of reification applied to theory expressions in gringo. On the other hand, we propose two transformations of dynamic formulas into monadic second-order formulas. These can then be used by off-the-shelf tools to construct the corresponding automata. We contrast both approaches empirically with the one of the temporal ASP solver telingo that directly maps dynamic constraints to logic programs. Since this preliminary study is restricted to dynamic formulas in integrity constraints, its implementations and (empirical) results readily apply to conventional linear dynamic logic, too.

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Abstract:Over the last decades the development of ASP has brought about an expressive modeling language powered by highly performant systems. At the same time, it gets more and more difficult to provide semantic underpinnings capturing the resulting constructs and inferences. This is even more severe when it comes to hybrid ASP languages and systems that are often needed to handle real-world applications. We address this challenge and introduce the concept of abstract and structured theories that allow us to formally elaborate upon their integration with ASP. We then use this concept to make precise the semantic characterization of CLINGO's theory-reasoning framework and establish its correspondence to the logic of Here-and-there with constraints. This provides us with a formal framework in which we can elaborate formal properties of existing hybridizations of CLINGO such as CLINGCON, CLINGOM[DL], and CLINGO[LP].

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Abstract:Multi-Context Systems (MCS) model in Computational Logic distributed systems composed of heterogeneous sources, or "contexts", interacting via special rules called "bridge rules". In this paper, we consider how to enhance flexibility and generality in bridge-rules definition and application. In particular, we introduce and discuss some formal extensions of MCSs useful for a practical use in dynamic environments, and we try to provide guidelines for implementations

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Abstract:We present xclingo, a tool for generating explanations from ASP programs annotated with text and labels. These annotations allow tracing the application of rules or the atoms derived by them. The input of xclingo is a markup language written as ASP comment lines, so the programs annotated in this way can still be accepted by a standard ASP solver. xclingo translates the annotations into additional predicates and rules and uses the ASP solver clingo to obtain the extension of those auxiliary predicates. This information is used afterwards to construct derivation trees containing textual explanations. The language allows selecting which atoms to explain and, in its turn, which atoms or rules to include in those explanations. We illustrate the basic features through a diagnosis problem from the literature.

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Authors:Felicidad Aguado, Pedro Cabalar, Martin Dieguez, Gilberto Perez, Torsten Schaub, Anna Schuhmann, Concepcion Vidal

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Abstract:We present an overview on Temporal Logic Programming under the perspective of its application for Knowledge Representation and declarative problem solving. Such programs are the result of combining usual rules with temporal modal operators, as in Linear-time Temporal Logic (LTL). We focus on recent results of the non-monotonic formalism called Temporal Equilibrium Logic (TEL) that is defined for the full syntax of LTL, but performs a model selection criterion based on Equilibrium Logic, a well known logical characterization of Answer Set Programming (ASP). We obtain a proper extension of the stable models semantics for the general case of arbitrary temporal formulas. We recall the basic definitions for TEL and its monotonic basis, the temporal logic of Here-and-There (THT), and study the differences between infinite and finite traces. We also provide other useful results, such as the translation into other formalisms like Quantified Equilibrium Logic or Second-order LTL, and some techniques for computing temporal stable models based on automata. In a second part, we focus on practical aspects, defining a syntactic fragment called temporal logic programs closer to ASP, and explain how this has been exploited in the construction of the solver TELINGO.

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Abstract:We elaborate upon the theoretical foundations of a metric temporal extension of Answer Set Programming. In analogy to previous extensions of ASP with constructs from Linear Temporal and Dynamic Logic, we accomplish this in the setting of the logic of Here-and-There and its non-monotonic extension, called Equilibrium Logic. More precisely, we develop our logic on the same semantic underpinnings as its predecessors and thus use a simple time domain of bounded time steps. This allows us to compare all variants in a uniform framework and ultimately combine them in a common implementation.

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