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Omaha State University, USA, University of Potsdam, Germany

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Abstract:This paper presents a rich knowledge representation language aimed at formalizing causal knowledge. This language is used for accurately and directly formalizing common benchmark examples from the literature of actual causality. A definition of cause is presented and used to analyze the actual causes of changes with respect to sequences of actions representing those examples.

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Abstract:Theory of stable models is the mathematical basis of answer set programming. Several results in that theory refer to the concept of the positive dependency graph of a logic program. We describe a modification of that concept and show that the new understanding of positive dependency makes it possible to strengthen some of these results. Under consideration in Theory and Practice of Logic Programming (TPLP).

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Abstract:ANTHEM is a proof assistant that can be used for verifying the correctness of tight programs in the input language of the answer set grounder GRINGO with respect to specifications expressed by first-order formulas. We define the concept of a locally tight program and prove that the verification process used by ANTHEM is applicable in this more general setting. Unlike tightness, the local tightness condition allows some forms of recursion. In particular, some programs describing effects of actions are locally tight. Under consideration for publication in Theory and Practice of Logic Programming

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Abstract:In this work, we show that both logic programming and abstract argumentation frameworks can be interpreted in terms of Nelson's constructive logic N4. We do so by formalizing, in this logic, two principles that we call non-contradictory inference and strengthened closed world assumption: the first states that no belief can be held based on contradictory evidence while the latter forces both unknown and contradictory evidence to be regarded as false. Using these principles, both logic programming and abstract argumentation frameworks are translated into constructive logic in a modular way and using the object language. Logic programming implication and abstract argumentation supports become, in the translation, a new implication connective following the non-contradictory inference principle. Attacks are then represented by combining this new implication with strong negation. Under consideration in Theory and Practice of Logic Programming (TPLP).

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Abstract:We take up an idea from the folklore of Answer Set Programming, namely that choices, integrity constraints along with a restricted rule format is sufficient for Answer Set Programming. We elaborate upon the foundations of this idea in the context of the logic of Here-and-There and show how it can be derived from the logical principle of extension by definition. We then provide an austere form of logic programs that may serve as a normalform for logic programs similar to conjunctive normalform in classical logic. Finally, we take the key ideas and propose a modeling methodology for ASP beginners and illustrate how it can be used.

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Abstract:The language of epistemic specifications and epistemic logic programs extends disjunctive logic programs under the stable model semantics with modal constructs called subjective literals. Using subjective literals, it is possible to check whether a regular literal is true in every or some stable models of the program, those models, in this context also called \emph{belief sets}, being collected in a set called world view. This allows for representing, within the language, whether some proposition should be understood accordingly to the open or the closed world assumption. Several attempts for capturing the intuitions underlying the language by means of a formal semantics were given, resulting in a multitude of proposals that makes it difficult to understand the current state of the art. In this paper, we provide an overview of the inception of the field and the knowledge representation and reasoning tasks it is suitable for. We also provide a detailed analysis of properties of proposed semantics, and an outlook of challenges to be tackled by future research in the area. Under consideration in Theory and Practice of Logic Programming (TPLP)

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Abstract:We present a general approach to planning with incomplete information in Answer Set Programming (ASP). More precisely, we consider the problems of conformant and conditional planning with sensing actions and assumptions. We represent planning problems using a simple formalism where logic programs describe the transition function between states, the initial states and the goal states. For solving planning problems, we use Quantified Answer Set Programming (QASP), an extension of ASP with existential and universal quantifiers over atoms that is analogous to Quantified Boolean Formulas (QBFs). We define the language of quantified logic programs and use it to represent the solutions to different variants of conformant and conditional planning. On the practical side, we present a translation-based QASP solver that converts quantified logic programs into QBFs and then executes a QBF solver, and we evaluate experimentally the approach on conformant and conditional planning benchmarks. Under consideration for acceptance in TPLP.

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Abstract:Over the last decades the development of ASP has brought about an expressive modeling language powered by highly performant systems. At the same time, it gets more and more difficult to provide semantic underpinnings capturing the resulting constructs and inferences. This is even more severe when it comes to hybrid ASP languages and systems that are often needed to handle real-world applications. We address this challenge and introduce the concept of abstract and structured theories that allow us to formally elaborate upon their integration with ASP. We then use this concept to make precise the semantic characterization of CLINGO's theory-reasoning framework and establish its correspondence to the logic of Here-and-there with constraints. This provides us with a formal framework in which we can elaborate formal properties of existing hybridizations of CLINGO such as CLINGCON, CLINGOM[DL], and CLINGO[LP].

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Abstract:We present xclingo, a tool for generating explanations from ASP programs annotated with text and labels. These annotations allow tracing the application of rules or the atoms derived by them. The input of xclingo is a markup language written as ASP comment lines, so the programs annotated in this way can still be accepted by a standard ASP solver. xclingo translates the annotations into additional predicates and rules and uses the ASP solver clingo to obtain the extension of those auxiliary predicates. This information is used afterwards to construct derivation trees containing textual explanations. The language allows selecting which atoms to explain and, in its turn, which atoms or rules to include in those explanations. We illustrate the basic features through a diagnosis problem from the literature.

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Abstract:This paper continues the line of research aimed at investigating the relationship between logic programs and first-order theories. We extend the definition of program completion to programs with input and output in a subset of the input language of the ASP grounder gringo, study the relationship between stable models and completion in this context, and describe preliminary experiments with the use of two software tools, anthem and vampire, for verifying the correctness of programs with input and output. Proofs of theorems are based on a lemma that relates the semantics of programs studied in this paper to stable models of first-order formulas. Under consideration for acceptance in TPLP.

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