This paper presents a method to efficiently classify the gastroenterologic section of images derived from Video Capsule Endoscopy (VCE) studies by exploring the combination of a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for classification with the time-series analysis properties of a Hidden Markov Model (HMM). It is demonstrated that successive time-series analysis identifies and corrects errors in the CNN output. Our approach achieves an accuracy of $98.04\%$ on the Rhode Island (RI) Gastroenterology dataset. This allows for precise localization within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract while requiring only approximately 1M parameters and thus, provides a method suitable for low power devices
Comprehensive perception of the environment is crucial for the safe operation of autonomous vehicles. However, the perception capabilities of autonomous vehicles are limited due to occlusions, limited sensor ranges, or environmental influences. Collective Perception (CP) aims to mitigate these problems by enabling the exchange of information between vehicles. A major challenge in CP is the fusion of the exchanged information. Due to the enormous bandwidth requirement of early fusion approaches and the interchangeability issues of intermediate fusion approaches, only the late fusion of shared detections is practical. Current late fusion approaches neglect valuable information for local detection, this is why we propose a novel fusion method to fuse the detections of cooperative vehicles within the local LiDAR-based detection pipeline. Therefore, we present Collective PV-RCNN (CPV-RCNN), which extends the PV-RCNN++ framework to fuse collective detections. Code is available at https://github.com/ekut-es
The process of optimizing the latency of DNN operators with ML models and hardware-in-the-loop, called auto-tuning, has established itself as a pervasive method for the deployment of neural networks. From a search space of loop-optimizations, the candidate providing the best performance has to be selected. Performance of individual configurations is evaluated through hardware measurements. The combinatorial explosion of possible configurations, together with the cost of hardware evaluation makes exhaustive explorations of the search space infeasible in practice. Machine Learning methods, like random forests or reinforcement learning are used to aid in the selection of candidates for hardware evaluation. For general purpose hardware like x86 and GPGPU architectures impressive performance gains can be achieved, compared to hand-optimized libraries like cuDNN. The method is also useful in the space of hardware accelerators with less wide-spread adoption, where a high-performance library is not always available. However, hardware accelerators are often less flexible with respect to their programming which leads to operator configurations not executable on the hardware target. This work evaluates how these invalid configurations affect the auto-tuning process and its underlying performance prediction model for the VTA hardware. From these results, a validity-driven initialization method for AutoTVM is developed, only requiring 41.6% of the necessary hardware measurements to find the best solution, while improving search robustness.
Scenario-based approaches for the validation of highly automated driving functions are based on the search for safety-critical characteristics of driving scenarios using software-in-the-loop simulations. This search requires information about the shape and probability of scenarios in real-world traffic. The scope of this work is to develop a method that identifies redefined logical driving scenarios in field data, so that this information can be derived subsequently. More precisely, a suitable approach is developed, implemented and validated using a traffic scenario as an example. The presented methodology is based on qualitative modelling of scenarios, which can be detected in abstracted field data. The abstraction is achieved by using universal elements of an ontology represented by a domain model. Already published approaches for such an abstraction are discussed and concretised with regard to the given application. By examining a first set of test data, it is shown that the developed method is a suitable approach for the identification of further driving scenarios.
Keyword spotting (KWS) is becoming a ubiquitous need with the advancement in artificial intelligence and smart devices. Recent work in this field have focused on several different architectures to achieve good results on datasets with low to moderate noise. However, the performance of these models deteriorates under high noise conditions as shown by our experiments. In our paper, we present an extensive comparison between state-of-the-art KWS networks under various noisy conditions. We also suggest adaptive batch normalization as a technique to improve the performance of the networks when the noise files are unknown during the training phase. The results of such high noise characterization enable future work in developing models that perform better in the aforementioned conditions.
While self-learning methods are an important component in many recent domain adaptation techniques, they are not yet comprehensively evaluated on ImageNet-scale datasets common in robustness research. In extensive experiments on ResNet and EfficientNet models, we find that three components are crucial for increasing performance with self-learning: (i) using short update times between the teacher and the student network, (ii) fine-tuning only few affine parameters distributed across the network, and (iii) leveraging methods from robust classification to counteract the effect of label noise. We use these insights to obtain drastically improved state-of-the-art results on ImageNet-C (22.0% mCE), ImageNet-R (17.4% error) and ImageNet-A (14.8% error). Our techniques yield further improvements in combination with previously proposed robustification methods. Self-learning is able to reduce the top-1 error to a point where no substantial further progress can be expected. We therefore re-purpose the dataset from the Visual Domain Adaptation Challenge 2019 and use a subset of it as a new robustness benchmark (ImageNet-D) which proves to be a more challenging dataset for all current state-of-the-art models (58.2% error) to guide future research efforts at the intersection of robustness and domain adaptation on ImageNet scale.
Today's state-of-the-art machine vision models are vulnerable to image corruptions like blurring or compression artefacts, limiting their performance in many real-world applications. We here argue that popular benchmarks to measure model robustness against common corruptions (like ImageNet-C) underestimate model robustness in many (but not all) application scenarios. The key insight is that in many scenarios, multiple unlabeled examples of the corruptions are available and can be used for unsupervised online adaptation. Replacing the activation statistics estimated by batch normalization on the training set with the statistics of the corrupted images consistently improves the robustness across 25 different popular computer vision models. Using the corrected statistics, ResNet-50 reaches 62.2% mCE on ImageNet-C compared to 76.7% without adaptation. With the more robust AugMix model, we improve the state of the art from 56.5% mCE to 51.0% mCE. Even adapting to a single sample improves robustness for the ResNet-50 and AugMix models, and 32 samples are sufficient to improve the current state of the art for a ResNet-50 architecture. We argue that results with adapted statistics should be included whenever reporting scores in corruption benchmarks and other out-of-distribution generalization settings.
The human visual system is remarkably robust against a wide range of naturally occurring variations and corruptions like rain or snow. In contrast, the performance of modern image recognition models strongly degrades when evaluated on previously unseen corruptions. Here, we demonstrate that a simple but properly tuned training with additive Gaussian and Speckle noise generalizes surprisingly well to unseen corruptions, easily reaching the previous state of the art on the corruption benchmark ImageNet-C (with ResNet50) and on MNIST-C. We build on top of these strong baseline results and show that an adversarial training of the recognition model against uncorrelated worst-case noise distributions leads to an additional increase in performance. This regularization can be combined with previously proposed defense methods for further improvement.