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This work proposes a small pattern and polarization diversity multi-sector annular antenna with electrical size and profile of ${ka=1.2}$ and ${0.018\lambda}$, respectively. The antenna is planar and comprises annular sectors that are fed using different ports to enable digital beamforming techniques, with efficiency and gain of up to 78% and 4.62 dBi, respectively. The cavity mode analysis is used to describe the design concept and the antenna diversity. The proposed method can produce different polarization states (e.g. linearly and circularly polarized patterns), and pattern diversity characteristics covering the elevation plane. Owing to its small electrical size, low-profile and diversity properties, the solution shows good promise to enable advanced radio applications like wireless physical layer security in many emerging and size-constrained Internet of Things (IoT) devices.

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With the rapid deployment of quantum computers and quantum satellites, there is a pressing need to design and deploy quantum and hybrid classical-quantum networks capable of exchanging classical information. In this context, we conduct the foundational study on the impact of a mixture of classical and quantum noise on an arbitrary quantum channel carrying classical information. The rationale behind considering such mixed noise is that quantum noise can arise from different entanglement and discord in quantum transmission scenarios, like different memories and repeater technologies, while classical noise can arise from the coexistence with the classical signal. Towards this end, we derive the distribution of the mixed noise from a classical system's perspective, and formulate the achievable channel capacity over an arbitrary distributed quantum channel in presence of the mixed noise. Numerical results demonstrate that capacity increases with the increase in the number of photons per usage.

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Pedro E. Gória Silva, Adam Narbudowicz, Nicola Marchetti, Pedro H. J. Nardelli, Rausley A. A. de Souza, Jules M. Moualeu

In this paper, the privacy of wireless transmissions is improved through the use of an efficient technique termed dynamic directional modulation (DDM), and is subsequently assessed in terms of the measure of information leakage. Recently, a variation of DDM termed low-power dynamic directional modulation (LPDDM) has attracted significant attention as a prominent secure transmission method due to its ability to further improve the privacy of wireless communications. Roughly speaking, this modulation operates by randomly selecting the transmitting antenna from an antenna array whose radiation pattern is well known. Thereafter, the modulator adjusts the constellation phase so as to ensure that only the legitimate receiver recovers the information. To begin with, we highlight some privacy boundaries inherent to the underlying system. In addition, we propose features that the antenna array must meet in order to increase the privacy of a wireless communication system. Last, we adopt a uniform circular monopole antenna array with equiprobable transmitting antennas in order to assess the impact of DDM on the information leakage. It is shown that the bit error rate, while being a useful metric in the evaluation of wireless communication systems, does not provide the full information about the vulnerability of the underlying system.

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Pedro E. Goria Silva, Pedro H. J. Nardelli, Arthur S. de Sena, Harun Siljak, Niko Nevaranta, Nicola Marchetti, Rausley A. A. de Souza

This paper explores the use of semantic knowledge inherent in the cyber-physical system (CPS) under study in order to minimize the use of explicit communication, which refers to the use of physical radio resources to transmit potentially informative data. It is assumed that the acquired data have a function in the system, usually related to its state estimation, which may trigger control actions. We propose that a semantic-functional approach can leverage the semantic-enabled implicit communication while guaranteeing that the system maintains functionality under the required performance. We illustrate the potential of this proposal through simulations of a swarm of drones jointly performing remote sensing in a given area. Our numerical results demonstrate that the proposed method offers the best design option regarding the ability to accomplish a previously established task -- remote sensing in the addressed case -- while minimising the use of radio resources by controlling the trade-offs that jointly determine the CPS performance and its effectiveness in the use of resources. In this sense, we establish a fundamental relationship between energy, communication, and functionality considering a given end application.

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Industrial Internet-of-Things (IIoT) involve multiple groups of sensors, each group sending its observations on a particular phenomenon to a central computing platform over a multiple access channel (MAC). The central platform incorporates a decision fusion center (DFC) that arrives at global decisions regarding each set of phenomena by combining the received local sensor decisions. Owing to the diverse nature of the sensors and heterogeneous nature of the information they report, it becomes extremely challenging for the DFC to denoise the signals and arrive at multiple reliable global decisions regarding multiple phenomena. The industrial environment represents a specific indoor scenario devoid of windows and filled with different noisy electrical and measuring units. In that case, the MAC is modelled as a large-scale shadowed and slowly-faded channel corrupted with a combination of Gaussian and impulsive noise. The primary contribution of this paper is to propose a flexible, robust and highly noise-resilient multi-signal transmission framework based on Wavelet packet division multiplexing (WPDM). The local sensor observations from each group of sensors are waveform coded onto wavelet packet basis functions before reporting them over the MAC. We assume a multi-antenna DFC where the waveform-coded sensor observations can be separated by a bank of linear filters or a correlator receiver, owing to the orthogonality of the received waveforms. At the DFC we formulate and compare fusion rules for fusing received multiple sensor decisions, to arrive at reliable conclusions regarding multiple phenomena. Simulation results show that WPDM-aided wireless sensor network (WSN) for IIoT environments offer higher immunity to noise by more than 10 times over performance without WPDM in terms of probability of false detection.

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Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices are low size, weight and power (SWaP), low complexity and include sensors, meters, wearables and trackers. Transmitting information with high signal power is exacting on device battery life, therefore an efficient link and network configuration is absolutely crucial to avoid signal power enhancement in interference-rich environment and resorting to battery-life extending strategies. Efficient network configuration can also ensure fulfilment of network performance metrics like throughput, coding rate and spectral efficiency. We formulate a novel approach of first localizing the IoT nodes and then extracting the network topology for information exchange between the nodes (devices, gateway and sinks), such that overall network throughput is maximized. The nodes are localized using noisy measurements of a subset of Euclidean distances between two nodes. Realizable subsets of neighboring devices agree with their own position within the entire network graph through eigenvector synchronization. Using communication global graph-model-based technique, network topology is constructed in terms of transmit power allocation with the aim of maximizing spatial usage and overall network throughput. This topology extraction problem is solved using the concept of linear programming.

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In this paper we are interested to model quantum signal by statistical signal processing methods. The Gaussian distribution has been considered for the input quantum signal as Gaussian state have been proven to a type of important robust state and most of the important experiments of quantum information are done with Gaussian light. Along with that a joint noise model has been invoked, and followed by a received signal model has been formulated by using convolution of transmitted signal and joint quantum noise to realized theoretical achievable capacity of the single quantum link. In joint quantum noise model we consider the quantum Poisson noise with classical Gaussian noise. We compare the capacity of the quantum channel with respect to SNR to detect its overall tendency. In this paper we use the channel equation in terms of random variable to investigate the quantum signals and noise model statistically. These methods are proposed to develop Quantum statistical signal processing and the idea comes from the statistical signal processing.

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In this article, we are proposing a closed-form solution for the capacity of the single quantum channel. The Gaussian distributed input has been considered for the analytical calculation of the capacity. In our previous couple of papers, we invoked models for joint quantum noise and the corresponding received signals; in this current research, we proved that these models are Gaussian mixtures distributions. In this paper, we showed how to deal with both of cases, namely (I)the Gaussian mixtures distribution for scalar variables and (II) the Gaussian mixtures distribution for random vectors. Our target is to calculate the entropy of the joint noise and the entropy of the received signal in order to calculate the capacity expression of the quantum channel. The main challenge is to work with the function type of the Gaussian mixture distribution. The entropy of the Gaussian mixture distributions cannot be calculated in the closed-form solution due to the logarithm of a sum of exponential functions. As a solution, we proposed a lower bound and a upper bound for each of the entropies of joint noise and the received signal, and finally upper inequality and lower inequality lead to the upper bound for the mutual information and hence the maximum achievable data rate as the capacity. In this paper reader will able to visualize an closed-form capacity experssion which make this paper distinct from our previous works. These capacity experssion and coresses ponding bounds are calculated for both the cases: the Gaussian mixtures distribution for scalar variables and the Gaussian mixtures distribution for random vectors as well.

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This work proposes an electrically small 3D beamforming antenna for PHYsical Layer (PHY-layer) security. The antenna comprises two layers of stacked patch structures and is a five-mode five-port MIMO system operating around 1.85 GHz with electrical size ${ka=0.98}$ and radiation efficiency of up to ${55\%}$. By studying the properties of the excited modes, phase and amplitude control allow for unidirectional beam scanning towards any direction around the elevation and azimuth planes. PHY-layer security is investigated using the directional modulation (DM) technique, which transmits unscrambled baseband constellation symbols to a pre-specified secure direction while simultaneously spatially distorting the same constellations in all other directions. Bit Error Rate (BER) calculations reveal very low values of ${2\times10^{-5}}$ for the desired direction of the legitimate receiver, with BER${<10^{-2}}$ beamwidths of ${55^{\circ}}$ and ${58^{\circ}}$ for the azimuth and elevation planes, respectively.

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This work proposes an energy-efficient Directional Modulation (DM) scheme for on-body Internet of Things (IoT) devices. DM performance is tested using a 5-port stacked-patch MIMO antenna under two scenarios: a free space case and using a four-layer human forearm phantom to simulate the user's wrist. It is demonstrated that the scheme achieves steerable secure transmissions across the entire horizontal plane. With a low Bit Error Rate (BER) of ${1.5\times10^{-5}}$ at the desired directions, eavesdroppers experience a high error rate of up to ${0.498}$. Furthermore, this work investigates the DM performance using a subset of the stacked patches in the MIMO antenna, revealing that some combinations achieve a low BER performance using a lower antenna profile, albeit high side-lobes of BER${<10^{-2}}$ seen outside the desired region. Overall, the solution is proposed as a good candidate to enable secure wireless communications in emerging wearable IoT devices that are subject to size and energy constraints.

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