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Authors:Mohammad Hossein Amani, Nicolas Mario Baldwin, Amin Mansouri, Martin Josifoski, Maxime Peyrard, Robert West

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Abstract:Traditional language models, adept at next-token prediction in text sequences, often struggle with transduction tasks between distinct symbolic systems, particularly when parallel data is scarce. Addressing this issue, we introduce \textit{symbolic autoencoding} ($\Sigma$AE), a self-supervised framework that harnesses the power of abundant unparallel data alongside limited parallel data. $\Sigma$AE connects two generative models via a discrete bottleneck layer and is optimized end-to-end by minimizing reconstruction loss (simultaneously with supervised loss for the parallel data), such that the sequence generated by the discrete bottleneck can be read out as the transduced input sequence. We also develop gradient-based methods allowing for efficient self-supervised sequence learning despite the discreteness of the bottleneck. Our results demonstrate that $\Sigma$AE significantly enhances performance on transduction tasks, even with minimal parallel data, offering a promising solution for weakly supervised learning scenarios.

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Abstract:The Neural Tangent Kernel (NTK) has emerged as a powerful tool to provide memorization, optimization and generalization guarantees in deep neural networks. A line of work has studied the NTK spectrum for two-layer and deep networks with at least a layer with $\Omega(N)$ neurons, $N$ being the number of training samples. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence suggesting that deep networks with sub-linear layer widths are powerful memorizers and optimizers, as long as the number of parameters exceeds the number of samples. Thus, a natural open question is whether the NTK is well conditioned in such a challenging sub-linear setup. In this paper, we answer this question in the affirmative. Our key technical contribution is a lower bound on the smallest NTK eigenvalue for deep networks with the minimum possible over-parameterization: the number of parameters is roughly $\Omega(N)$ and, hence, the number of neurons is as little as $\Omega(\sqrt{N})$. To showcase the applicability of our NTK bounds, we provide two results concerning memorization capacity and optimization guarantees for gradient descent training.

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Abstract:In this paper, we study the compression of a target two-layer neural network with N nodes into a compressed network with M < N nodes. More precisely, we consider the setting in which the weights of the target network are i.i.d. sub-Gaussian, and we minimize the population L2 loss between the outputs of the target and of the compressed network, under the assumption of Gaussian inputs. By using tools from high-dimensional probability, we show that this non-convex problem can be simplified when the target network is sufficiently over-parameterized, and provide the error rate of this approximation as a function of the input dimension and N . For a ReLU activation function, we conjecture that the optimum of the simplified optimization problem is achieved by taking weights on the Equiangular Tight Frame (ETF), while the scaling of the weights and the orientation of the ETF depend on the parameters of the target network. Numerical evidence is provided to support this conjecture.

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