Highly specific datasets of scientific literature are important for both research and education. However, it is difficult to build such datasets at scale. A common approach is to build these datasets reductively by applying topic modeling on an established corpus and selecting specific topics. A more robust but time-consuming approach is to build the dataset constructively in which a subject matter expert (SME) handpicks documents. This method does not scale and is prone to error as the dataset grows. Here we showcase a new tool, based on machine learning, for constructively generating targeted datasets of scientific literature. Given a small initial "core" corpus of papers, we build a citation network of documents. At each step of the citation network, we generate text embeddings and visualize the embeddings through dimensionality reduction. Papers are kept in the dataset if they are "similar" to the core or are otherwise pruned through human-in-the-loop selection. Additional insight into the papers is gained through sub-topic modeling using SeNMFk. We demonstrate our new tool for literature review by applying it to two different fields in machine learning.
Malware is one of the most dangerous and costly cyber threats to national security and a crucial factor in modern cyber-space. However, the adoption of machine learning (ML) based solutions against malware threats has been relatively slow. Shortcomings in the existing ML approaches are likely contributing to this problem. The majority of current ML approaches ignore real-world challenges such as the detection of novel malware. In addition, proposed ML approaches are often designed either for malware/benign-ware classification or malware family classification. Here we introduce and showcase preliminary capabilities of a new method that can perform precise identification of novel malware families, while also unifying the capability for malware/benign-ware classification and malware family classification into a single framework.
As the amount of text data continues to grow, topic modeling is serving an important role in understanding the content hidden by the overwhelming quantity of documents. One popular topic modeling approach is non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), an unsupervised machine learning (ML) method. Recently, Semantic NMF with automatic model selection (SeNMFk) has been proposed as a modification to NMF. In addition to heuristically estimating the number of topics, SeNMFk also incorporates the semantic structure of the text. This is performed by jointly factorizing the term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) matrix with the co-occurrence/word-context matrix, the values of which represent the number of times two words co-occur in a predetermined window of the text. In this paper, we introduce a novel distributed method, SeNMFk-SPLIT, for semantic topic extraction suitable for large corpora. Contrary to SeNMFk, our method enables the joint factorization of large documents by decomposing the word-context and term-document matrices separately. We demonstrate the capability of SeNMFk-SPLIT by applying it to the entire artificial intelligence (AI) and ML scientific literature uploaded on arXiv.
* Accepted at ACM Symposium on Document Engineering 2022 (DocEng 22),
Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) with missing-value completion is a well-known effective Collaborative Filtering (CF) method used to provide personalized user recommendations. However, traditional CF relies on the privacy-invasive collection of users' explicit and implicit feedback to build a central recommender model. One-shot federated learning has recently emerged as a method to mitigate the privacy problem while addressing the traditional communication bottleneck of federated learning. In this paper, we present the first unsupervised one-shot federated CF implementation, named FedSPLIT, based on NMF joint factorization. In our solution, the clients first apply local CF in-parallel to build distinct client-specific recommenders. Then, the privacy-preserving local item patterns and biases from each client are shared with the processor to perform joint factorization in order to extract the global item patterns. Extracted patterns are then aggregated to each client to build the local models via knowledge distillation. In our experiments, we demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with standard recommendation datasets. FedSPLIT can obtain similar results than the state of the art (and even outperform it in certain situations) with a substantial decrease in the number of communications.
The unprecedented outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), or COVID-19, continues to be a significant worldwide problem. As a result, a surge of new COVID-19 related research has followed suit. The growing number of publications requires document organization methods to identify relevant information. In this paper, we expand upon our previous work with clustering the CORD-19 dataset by applying multi-dimensional analysis methods. Tensor factorization is a powerful unsupervised learning method capable of discovering hidden patterns in a document corpus. We show that a higher-order representation of the corpus allows for the simultaneous grouping of similar articles, relevant journals, authors with similar research interests, and topic keywords. These groupings are identified within and among the latent components extracted via tensor decomposition. We further demonstrate the application of this method with a publicly available interactive visualization of the dataset.
* Maksim E. Eren, Nick Solovyev, Chris Hamer, Renee McDonald, Boian
S.Alexandrov, and Charles Nicholas. 2021. COVID-19 Multidimensional Kaggle
Literature Organization. In ACM Symposium on Document Engineering 2021
The use of Machine Learning has become a significant part of malware detection efforts due to the influx of new malware, an ever changing threat landscape, and the ability of Machine Learning methods to discover meaningful distinctions between malicious and benign software. Antivirus vendors have also begun to widely utilize malware classifiers based on dynamic and static malware analysis features. Therefore, a malware author might make evasive binary modifications against Machine Learning models as part of the malware development life cycle to execute an attack successfully. This makes the studying of possible classifier evasion strategies an essential part of cyber defense against malice. To this extent, we stage a grey box setup to analyze a scenario where the malware author does not know the target classifier algorithm, and does not have access to decisions made by the classifier, but knows the features used in training. In this experiment, a malicious actor trains a surrogate model using the EMBER-2018 dataset to discover binary mutations that cause an instance to be misclassified via a Monte Carlo tree search. Then, mutated malware is sent to the victim model that takes the place of an antivirus API to test whether it can evade detection.
* Presented at the Malware Technical Exchange Meeting, Online,2021.
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