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OBELIX

François Painblanc, Laetitia Chapel, Nicolas Courty, Chloé Friguet, Charlotte Pelletier, Romain Tavenard

While large volumes of unlabeled data are usually available, associated labels are often scarce. The unsupervised domain adaptation problem aims at exploiting labels from a source domain to classify data from a related, yet different, target domain. When time series are at stake, new difficulties arise as temporal shifts may appear in addition to the standard feature distribution shift. In this paper, we introduce the Match-And-Deform (MAD) approach that aims at finding correspondences between the source and target time series while allowing temporal distortions. The associated optimization problem simultaneously aligns the series thanks to an optimal transport loss and the time stamps through dynamic time warping. When embedded into a deep neural network, MAD helps learning new representations of time series that both align the domains and maximize the discriminative power of the network. Empirical studies on benchmark datasets and remote sensing data demonstrate that MAD makes meaningful sample-to-sample pairing and time shift estimation, reaching similar or better classification performance than state-of-the-art deep time series domain adaptation strategies.

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Wasserstein distance (WD) and the associated optimal transport plan have been proven useful in many applications where probability measures are at stake. In this paper, we propose a new proxy of the squared WD, coined min-SWGG, that is based on the transport map induced by an optimal one-dimensional projection of the two input distributions. We draw connections between min-SWGG and Wasserstein generalized geodesics in which the pivot measure is supported on a line. We notably provide a new closed form for the exact Wasserstein distance in the particular case of one of the distributions supported on a line allowing us to derive a fast computational scheme that is amenable to gradient descent optimization. We show that min-SWGG is an upper bound of WD and that it has a complexity similar to as Sliced-Wasserstein, with the additional feature of providing an associated transport plan. We also investigate some theoretical properties such as metricity, weak convergence, computational and topological properties. Empirical evidences support the benefits of min-SWGG in various contexts, from gradient flows, shape matching and image colorization, among others.

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It has been shown beneficial for many types of data which present an underlying hierarchical structure to be embedded in hyperbolic spaces. Consequently, many tools of machine learning were extended to such spaces, but only few discrepancies to compare probability distributions defined over those spaces exist. Among the possible candidates, optimal transport distances are well defined on such Riemannian manifolds and enjoy strong theoretical properties, but suffer from high computational cost. On Euclidean spaces, sliced-Wasserstein distances, which leverage a closed-form of the Wasserstein distance in one dimension, are more computationally efficient, but are not readily available on hyperbolic spaces. In this work, we propose to derive novel hyperbolic sliced-Wasserstein discrepancies. These constructions use projections on the underlying geodesics either along horospheres or geodesics. We study and compare them on different tasks where hyperbolic representations are relevant, such as sampling or image classification.

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This paper addresses the problem of Unbalanced Optimal Transport (UOT) in which the marginal conditions are relaxed (using weighted penalties in lieu of equality) and no additional regularization is enforced on the OT plan. In this context, we show that the corresponding optimization problem can be reformulated as a non-negative penalized linear regression problem. This reformulation allows us to propose novel algorithms inspired from inverse problems and nonnegative matrix factorization. In particular, we consider majorization-minimization which leads in our setting to efficient multiplicative updates for a variety of penalties. Furthermore, we derive for the first time an efficient algorithm to compute the regularization path of UOT with quadratic penalties. The proposed algorithm provides a continuity of piece-wise linear OT plans converging to the solution of balanced OT (corresponding to infinite penalty weights). We perform several numerical experiments on simulated and real data illustrating the new algorithms, and provide a detailed discussion about more sophisticated optimization tools that can further be used to solve OT problems thanks to our reformulation.

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Optimal Transport (OT) framework allows defining similarity between probability distributions and provides metrics such as the Wasserstein and Gromov-Wasserstein discrepancies. Classical OT problem seeks a transportation map that preserves the total mass, requiring the mass of the source and target distributions to be the same. This may be too restrictive in certain applications such as color or shape matching, since the distributions may have arbitrary masses or that only a fraction of the total mass has to be transported. Several algorithms have been devised for computing unbalanced Wasserstein metrics but when it comes with the Gromov-Wasserstein problem, no partial formulation is available yet. This precludes from working with distributions that do not lie in the same metric space or when invariance to rotation or translation is needed. In this paper, we address the partial Gromov-Wasserstein problem and propose an algorithm to solve it. We showcase the new formulation in a positive-unlabeled (PU) learning application. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of optimal transport in this context and we first highlight that partial Wasserstein-based metrics prove effective in usual PU learning settings. We then demonstrate that partial Gromov-Wasserstein metrics is efficient in scenario where point clouds come from different domains or have different features.

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In this work we address the problem of comparing time series while taking into account both feature space transformation and temporal variability. The proposed framework combines a latent global transformation of the feature space with the widely used Dynamic Time Warping (DTW). The latent global transformation captures the feature invariance while the DTW (or its smooth counterpart soft-DTW) deals with the temporal shifts. We cast the problem as a joint optimization over the global transformation and the temporal alignments. The versatility of our framework allows for several variants depending on the invariance class at stake. Among our contributions we define a differentiable loss for time series and present two algorithms for the computation of time series barycenters under our new geometry. We illustrate the interest of our approach on both simulated and real world data.

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Recently used in various machine learning contexts, the Gromov-Wasserstein distance (GW) allows for comparing distributions that do not necessarily lie in the same metric space. However, this Optimal Transport (OT) distance requires solving a complex non convex quadratic program which is most of the time very costly both in time and memory. Contrary to GW, the Wasserstein distance (W) enjoys several properties (e.g. duality) that permit large scale optimization. Among those, the Sliced Wasserstein (SW) distance exploits the direct solution of W on the line, that only requires sorting discrete samples in 1D. This paper propose a new divergence based on GW akin to SW. We first derive a closed form for GW when dealing with 1D distributions, based on a new result for the related quadratic assignment problem. We then define a novel OT discrepancy that can deal with large scale distributions via a slicing approach and we show how it relates to the GW distance while being $O(n^2)$ to compute. We illustrate the behavior of this so called Sliced Gromov-Wasserstein (SGW) discrepancy in experiments where we demonstrate its ability to tackle similar problems as GW while being several order of magnitudes faster to compute

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Optimal transport has recently gained a lot of interest in the machine learning community thanks to its ability to compare probability distributions while respecting the underlying space's geometry. Wasserstein distance deals with feature information through its metric or cost function, but fails in exploiting the structural information, i.e the specific relations existing among the components of the distribution. Recently adapted to a machine learning context, the Gromov-Wasserstein distance defines a metric well suited for comparing distributions that live in different metric spaces by exploiting their inner structural information. In this paper we propose a new optimal transport distance, called the Fused Gromov-Wasserstein distance, capable of leveraging both structural and feature information by combining both views and prove its metric properties over very general manifolds. We also define the barycenter of structured objects as their Fr\'echet mean, leveraging both feature and structural information. We illustrate the versatility of the method for problems where structured objects are involved, computing barycenters in graph and time series contexts. We also use this new distance for graph classification where we obtain comparable or superior results than state-of-the-art graph kernel methods and end-to-end graph CNN approach.

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Geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) framework has gained increasing interest recently. Following this popular paradigm, we propose a novel multiscale classification approach operating on a hierarchical image representation built from two images at different resolutions. They capture the same scene with different sensors and are naturally fused together through the hierarchical representation, where coarser levels are built from a Low Spatial Resolution (LSR) or Medium Spatial Resolution (MSR) image while finer levels are generated from a High Spatial Resolution (HSR) or Very High Spatial Resolution (VHSR) image. Such a representation allows one to benefit from the context information thanks to the coarser levels, and subregions spatial arrangement information thanks to the finer levels. Two dedicated structured kernels are then used to perform machine learning directly on the constructed hierarchical representation. This strategy overcomes the limits of conventional GEOBIA classification procedures that can handle only one or very few pre-selected scales. Experiments run on an urban classification task show that the proposed approach can highly improve the classification accuracy w.r.t. conventional approaches working on a single scale.

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Nowadays, hyperspectral image classification widely copes with spatial information to improve accuracy. One of the most popular way to integrate such information is to extract hierarchical features from a multiscale segmentation. In the classification context, the extracted features are commonly concatenated into a long vector (also called stacked vector), on which is applied a conventional vector-based machine learning technique (e.g. SVM with Gaussian kernel). In this paper, we rather propose to use a sequence structured kernel: the spectrum kernel. We show that the conventional stacked vector-based kernel is actually a special case of this kernel. Experiments conducted on various publicly available hyperspectral datasets illustrate the improvement of the proposed kernel w.r.t. conventional ones using the same hierarchical spatial features.

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