Face image quality assessment (FIQA) is crucial for obtaining good face recognition performance. FIQA algorithms should be robust and insensitive to demographic factors. The eye sclera has a consistent whitish color in all humans regardless of their age, ethnicity and skin-tone. This work proposes a robust sclera segmentation method that is suitable for face images in the enrolment and the border control face recognition scenarios. It shows how the statistical analysis of the sclera pixels produces features that are invariant to skin-tone, age and ethnicity and thus can be incorporated into FIQA algorithms to make them agnostic to demographic factors.
Estimating building footprint maps from geospatial data is of paramount importance in urban planning, development, disaster management, and various other applications. Deep learning methodologies have gained prominence in building segmentation maps, offering the promise of precise footprint extraction without extensive post-processing. However, these methods face challenges in generalization and label efficiency, particularly in remote sensing, where obtaining accurate labels can be both expensive and time-consuming. To address these challenges, we propose terrain-aware self-supervised learning, tailored to remote sensing, using digital elevation models from LiDAR data. We propose to learn a model to differentiate between bare Earth and superimposed structures enabling the network to implicitly learn domain-relevant features without the need for extensive pixel-level annotations. We test the effectiveness of our approach by evaluating building segmentation performance on test datasets with varying label fractions. Remarkably, with only 1% of the labels (equivalent to 25 labeled examples), our method improves over ImageNet pre-training, showing the advantage of leveraging unlabeled data for feature extraction in the domain of remote sensing. The performance improvement is more pronounced in few-shot scenarios and gradually closes the gap with ImageNet pre-training as the label fraction increases. We test on a dataset characterized by substantial distribution shifts and labeling errors to demonstrate the generalizability of our approach. When compared to other baselines, including ImageNet pretraining and more complex architectures, our approach consistently performs better, demonstrating the efficiency and effectiveness of self-supervised terrain-aware feature learning.
Face Morphing Attacks pose a threat to the security of identity documents, especially with respect to a subsequent access control process, because it enables both individuals involved to exploit the same document. In this study, face embeddings serve two purposes: pre-selecting images for large-scale Morphing Attack generation and detecting potential Morphing Attacks. We build upon previous embedding studies in both use cases using the MagFace model. For the first objective, we employ an pre-selection algorithm that pairs individuals based on face embedding similarity. We quantify the attack potential of differently morphed face images to compare the usability of pre-selection in automatically generating numerous successful Morphing Attacks. Regarding the second objective, we compare embeddings from two state-of-the-art face recognition systems in terms of their ability to detect Morphing Attacks. Our findings demonstrate that ArcFace and MagFace provide valuable face embeddings for image pre-selection. Both open-source and COTS face recognition systems are susceptible to generated attacks, particularly when pre-selection is based on embeddings rather than random pairing which was only constrained by soft biometrics. More accurate face recognition systems exhibit greater vulnerability to attacks, with COTS systems being the most susceptible. Additionally, MagFace embeddings serve as a robust alternative for detecting morphed face images compared to the previously used ArcFace embeddings. The results endorse the advantages of face embeddings in more effective image pre-selection for face morphing and accurate detection of morphed face images. This is supported by extensive analysis of various designed attacks. The MagFace model proves to be a powerful alternative to the commonly used ArcFace model for both objectives, pre-selection and attack detection.
Face Recognition System (FRS) are shown to be vulnerable to morphed images of newborns. Detecting morphing attacks stemming from face images of newborn is important to avoid unwanted consequences, both for security and society. In this paper, we present a new reference-based/Differential Morphing Attack Detection (MAD) method to detect newborn morphing images using Wavelet Scattering Network (WSN). We propose a two-layer WSN with 250 $\times$ 250 pixels and six rotations of wavelets per layer, resulting in 577 paths. The proposed approach is validated on a dataset of 852 bona fide images and 2460 morphing images constructed using face images of 42 unique newborns. The obtained results indicate a gain of over 10\% in detection accuracy over other existing D-MAD techniques.
* accepted in 5th International Conference on Bio-engineering for Smart
Technologies (BIO-SMART 2023)
Latent fingerprints are among the most important and widely used evidence in crime scenes, digital forensics and law enforcement worldwide. Despite the number of advancements reported in recent works, we note that significant open issues such as independent benchmarking and lack of large-scale evaluation databases for improving the algorithms are inadequately addressed. The available databases are mostly of semi-public nature, lack of acquisition in the wild environment, and post-processing pipelines. Moreover, they do not represent a realistic capture scenario similar to real crime scenes, to benchmark the robustness of the algorithms. Further, existing databases for latent fingerprint recognition do not have a large number of unique subjects/fingerprint instances or do not provide ground truth/reference fingerprint images to conduct a cross-comparison against the latent. In this paper, we introduce a new wild large-scale latent fingerprint database that includes five different acquisition scenarios: reference fingerprints from (1) optical and (2) capacitive sensors, (3) smartphone fingerprints, latent fingerprints captured from (4) wall surface, (5) Ipad surface, and (6) aluminium foil surface. The new database consists of 1,318 unique fingerprint instances captured in all above mentioned settings. A total of 2,636 reference fingerprints from optical and capacitive sensors, 1,318 fingerphotos from smartphones, and 9,224 latent fingerprints from each of the 132 subjects were provided in this work. The dataset is constructed considering various age groups, equal representations of genders and backgrounds. In addition, we provide an extensive set of analysis of various subset evaluations to highlight open challenges for future directions in latent fingerprint recognition research.
* Submitted to IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security
A fast-paced development of DeepFake generation techniques challenge the detection schemes designed for known type DeepFakes. A reliable Deepfake detection approach must be agnostic to generation types, which can present diverse quality and appearance. Limited generalizability across different generation schemes will restrict the wide-scale deployment of detectors if they fail to handle unseen attacks in an open set scenario. We propose a new approach, Multi-Channel Xception Attention Pairwise Interaction (MCX-API), that exploits the power of pairwise learning and complementary information from different color space representations in a fine-grained manner. We first validate our idea on a publicly available dataset in a intra-class setting (closed set) with four different Deepfake schemes. Further, we report all the results using balanced-open-set-classification (BOSC) accuracy in an inter-class setting (open-set) using three public datasets. Our experiments indicate that our proposed method can generalize better than the state-of-the-art Deepfakes detectors. We obtain 98.48% BOSC accuracy on the FF++ dataset and 90.87% BOSC accuracy on the CelebDF dataset suggesting a promising direction for generalization of DeepFake detection. We further utilize t-SNE and attention maps to interpret and visualize the decision-making process of our proposed network. https://github.com/xuyingzhongguo/MCX-API
Many applications such as forensics, surveillance, satellite imaging, medical imaging, etc., demand High-Resolution (HR) images. However, obtaining an HR image is not always possible due to the limitations of optical sensors and their costs. An alternative solution called Single Image Super-Resolution (SISR) is a software-driven approach that aims to take a Low-Resolution (LR) image and obtain the HR image. Most supervised SISR solutions use ground truth HR image as a target and do not include the information provided in the LR image, which could be valuable. In this work, we introduce Triplet Loss-based Generative Adversarial Network hereafter referred as SRTGAN for Image Super-Resolution problem on real-world degradation. We introduce a new triplet-based adversarial loss function that exploits the information provided in the LR image by using it as a negative sample. Allowing the patch-based discriminator with access to both HR and LR images optimizes to better differentiate between HR and LR images; hence, improving the adversary. Further, we propose to fuse the adversarial loss, content loss, perceptual loss, and quality loss to obtain Super-Resolution (SR) image with high perceptual fidelity. We validate the superior performance of the proposed method over the other existing methods on the RealSR dataset in terms of quantitative and qualitative metrics.
* Affiliated with the Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of
Technology (SVNIT), India and Norwegian University of Science and Technology
(NTNU), Norway. Presented at the 7th International Conference on Computer
Vision and Image Processing (CVIP) 2022
The vast progress in synthetic image synthesis enables the generation of facial images in high resolution and photorealism. In biometric applications, the main motivation for using synthetic data is to solve the shortage of publicly-available biometric data while reducing privacy risks when processing such sensitive information. These advantages are exploited in this work by simulating human face ageing with recent face age modification algorithms to generate mated samples, thereby studying the impact of ageing on the performance of an open-source biometric recognition system. Further, a real dataset is used to evaluate the effects of short-term ageing, comparing the biometric performance to the synthetic domain. The main findings indicate that short-term ageing in the range of 1-5 years has only minor effects on the general recognition performance. However, the correct verification of mated faces with long-term age differences beyond 20 years poses still a significant challenge and requires further investigation.
This paper presents a summary of the Competition on Face Morphing Attack Detection Based on Privacy-aware Synthetic Training Data (SYN-MAD) held at the 2022 International Joint Conference on Biometrics (IJCB 2022). The competition attracted a total of 12 participating teams, both from academia and industry and present in 11 different countries. In the end, seven valid submissions were submitted by the participating teams and evaluated by the organizers. The competition was held to present and attract solutions that deal with detecting face morphing attacks while protecting people's privacy for ethical and legal reasons. To ensure this, the training data was limited to synthetic data provided by the organizers. The submitted solutions presented innovations that led to outperforming the considered baseline in many experimental settings. The evaluation benchmark is now available at: https://github.com/marcohuber/SYN-MAD-2022.
* Accepted at International Joint Conference on Biometrics (IJCB) 2022
In recent years, image and video manipulations with DeepFake have become a severe concern for security and society. Therefore, many detection models and databases have been proposed to detect DeepFake data reliably. However, there is an increased concern that these models and training databases might be biased and thus, cause DeepFake detectors to fail. In this work, we tackle these issues by (a) providing large-scale demographic and non-demographic attribute annotations of 41 different attributes for five popular DeepFake datasets and (b) comprehensively analysing AI-bias of multiple state-of-the-art DeepFake detection models on these databases. The investigation analyses the influence of a large variety of distinctive attributes (from over 65M labels) on the detection performance, including demographic (age, gender, ethnicity) and non-demographic (hair, skin, accessories, etc.) information. The results indicate that investigated databases lack diversity and, more importantly, show that the utilised DeepFake detection models are strongly biased towards many investigated attributes. Moreover, the results show that the models' decision-making might be based on several questionable (biased) assumptions, such if a person is smiling or wearing a hat. Depending on the application of such DeepFake detection methods, these biases can lead to generalizability, fairness, and security issues. We hope that the findings of this study and the annotation databases will help to evaluate and mitigate bias in future DeepFake detection techniques. Our annotation datasets are made publicly available.