Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) signaling is one of the key technologies of current mobile communication systems. However, the complex and expensive radio frequency (RF) chains have always limited the increase of MIMO scale. In this paper, we propose a MIMO transmission architecture based on a dual-polarized reconfigurable intelligent surface (RIS), which can directly achieve modulation and transmission of multichannel signals without the need for conventional RF chains. Compared with previous works, the proposed architecture can improve the integration of RIS-based transmission systems. A prototype of the dual-polarized RIS-based MIMO transmission system is built and the experimental results confirm the feasibility of the proposed architecture. The dual-polarized RIS-based MIMO transmission architecture provides a promising solution for realizing low-cost ultra-massive MIMO towards future networks.