Machine Learning (ML) models are known to be vulnerable to adversarial inputs and researchers have demonstrated that even production systems, such as self-driving cars and ML-as-a-service offerings, are susceptible. These systems represent a target for bad actors. Their disruption can cause real physical and economic harm. When attacks on production ML systems occur, the ability to attribute the attack to the responsible threat group is a critical step in formulating a response and holding the attackers accountable. We pose the following question: can adversarially perturbed inputs be attributed to the particular methods used to generate the attack? In other words, is there a way to find a signal in these attacks that exposes the attack algorithm, model architecture, or hyperparameters used in the attack? We introduce the concept of adversarial attack attribution and create a simple supervised learning experimental framework to examine the feasibility of discovering attributable signals in adversarial attacks. We find that it is possible to differentiate attacks generated with different attack algorithms, models, and hyperparameters on both the CIFAR-10 and MNIST datasets.
Traditional metrics for evaluating the efficacy of image processing techniques do not lend themselves to understanding the capabilities and limitations of modern image processing methods - particularly those enabled by deep learning. When applying image processing in engineering solutions, a scientist or engineer has a need to justify their design decisions with clear metrics. By applying blind/referenceless image spatial quality (BRISQUE), Structural SIMilarity (SSIM) index scores, and Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) to images before and after image processing, we can quantify quality improvements in a meaningful way and determine the lowest recoverable image quality for a given method.
Maritime collisions involving multiple ships are considered rare, but in 2017 several United States Navy vessels were involved in fatal at-sea collisions that resulted in the death of seventeen American Servicemembers. The experimentation introduced in this paper is a direct response to these incidents. We propose a shipboard Collision-At-Sea avoidance system, based on video image processing, that will help ensure the safe stationing and navigation of maritime vessels. Our system leverages a convolutional neural network trained on synthetic maritime imagery in order to detect nearby vessels within a scene, perform heading analysis of detected vessels, and provide an alert in the presence of an inbound vessel. Additionally, we present the Navigational Hazards - Synthetic (NAVHAZ-Synthetic) dataset. This dataset, is comprised of one million annotated images of ten vessel classes observed from virtual vessel-mounted cameras, as well as a human "Topside Lookout" perspective. NAVHAZ-Synthetic includes imagery displaying varying sea-states, lighting conditions, and optical degradations such as fog, sea-spray, and salt-accumulation. We present our results on the use of synthetic imagery in a computer vision based collision-at-sea warning system with promising performance.
In this paper, we revisit the problem of classifying ships (maritime vessels) detected from overhead imagery. Despite the last decade of research on this very important and pertinent problem, it remains largely unsolved. One of the major issues with the detection and classification of ships and other objects in the maritime domain is the lack of substantial ground truth data needed to train state-of-the-art machine learning algorithms. We address this issue by building a large (200k) synthetic image dataset using the Unity gaming engine and 3D ship models. We demonstrate that with the use of synthetic data, classification performance increases dramatically, particularly when there are very few annotated images used in training.
An important goal for the machine learning (ML) community is to create approaches that can learn solutions with human-level capability. One domain where humans have held a significant advantage is visual processing. A significant approach to addressing this gap has been machine learning approaches that are inspired from the natural systems, such as artificial neural networks (ANNs), evolutionary computation (EC), and generative and developmental systems (GDS). Research into deep learning has demonstrated that such architectures can achieve performance competitive with humans on some visual tasks; however, these systems have been primarily trained through supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms. Alternatively, research is showing that evolution may have a significant role in the development of visual systems. Thus this paper investigates the role neuro-evolution (NE) can take in deep learning. In particular, the Hypercube-based NeuroEvolution of Augmenting Topologies is a NE approach that can effectively learn large neural structures by training an indirect encoding that compresses the ANN weight pattern as a function of geometry. The results show that HyperNEAT struggles with performing image classification by itself, but can be effective in training a feature extractor that other ML approaches can learn from. Thus NeuroEvolution combined with other ML methods provides an intriguing area of research that can replicate the processes in nature.