Post-training quantization (PTQ) and quantization-aware training (QAT) methods are gaining popularity in mitigating the high memory and computational costs associated with Large Language Models (LLMs). In resource-constrained scenarios, PTQ, with its reduced training overhead, is often preferred over QAT, despite the latter's potential for higher accuracy. Meanwhile, parameter-efficient fine-tuning (PEFT) methods like low-rank adaptation (LoRA) have been introduced, and recent efforts have explored quantization-aware PEFT techniques. However, these approaches may lack generality due to their reliance on the pre-quantized model's configuration. Their effectiveness may be compromised by non-linearly quantized or mixed-precision weights, and the retraining of specific quantization parameters might impede optimal performance. To address these challenges, we propose L4Q, an algorithm for parameter-efficient quantization-aware training. L4Q leverages LoRA-wise learned quantization step size for LLMs, aiming to enhance generality. The simultaneous quantization-and-fine-tuning process of L4Q is applicable to high-precision models, yielding linearly quantized weights with superior accuracy. Our experiments, conducted on the LLaMA and LLaMA2 model families using an instructional dataset, showcase L4Q's capabilities in language comprehension and few-shot in-context learning, achieving sub-4-bit precision while maintaining comparable training times to applying PEFT on a quantized model.
The emergence of diffusion models has greatly broadened the scope of high-fidelity image synthesis, resulting in notable advancements in both practical implementation and academic research. With the active adoption of the model in various real-world applications, the need for on-device deployment has grown considerably. However, deploying large diffusion models such as Stable Diffusion with more than one billion parameters to mobile devices poses distinctive challenges due to the limited computational and memory resources, which may vary according to the device. In this paper, we present the challenges and solutions for deploying Stable Diffusion on mobile devices with TensorFlow Lite framework, which supports both iOS and Android devices. The resulting Mobile Stable Diffusion achieves the inference latency of smaller than 7 seconds for a 512x512 image generation on Android devices with mobile GPUs.
* 7 pages, 8 figures, ICML 2023 Workshop on Challenges in Deployable