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Sai Munikoti, Ian Stewart, Sameera Horawalavithana, Henry Kvinge, Tegan Emerson, Sandra E Thompson, Karl Pazdernik

Multimodal models are expected to be a critical component to future advances in artificial intelligence. This field is starting to grow rapidly with a surge of new design elements motivated by the success of foundation models in natural language processing (NLP) and vision. It is widely hoped that further extending the foundation models to multiple modalities (e.g., text, image, video, sensor, time series, graph, etc.) will ultimately lead to generalist multimodal models, i.e. one model across different data modalities and tasks. However, there is little research that systematically analyzes recent multimodal models (particularly the ones that work beyond text and vision) with respect to the underling architecture proposed. Therefore, this work provides a fresh perspective on generalist multimodal models (GMMs) via a novel architecture and training configuration specific taxonomy. This includes factors such as Unifiability, Modularity, and Adaptability that are pertinent and essential to the wide adoption and application of GMMs. The review further highlights key challenges and prospects for the field and guide the researchers into the new advancements.

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Cody Tipton, Elizabeth Coda, Davis Brown, Alyson Bittner, Jung Lee, Grayson Jorgenson, Tegan Emerson, Henry Kvinge

Characteristic classes, which are abstract topological invariants associated with vector bundles, have become an important notion in modern physics with surprising real-world consequences. As a representative example, the incredible properties of topological insulators, which are insulators in their bulk but conductors on their surface, can be completely characterized by a specific characteristic class associated with their electronic band structure, the first Chern class. Given their importance to next generation computing and the computational challenge of calculating them using first-principles approaches, there is a need to develop machine learning approaches to predict the characteristic classes associated with a material system. To aid in this program we introduce the {\emph{Haldane bundle dataset}}, which consists of synthetically generated complex line bundles on the $2$-torus. We envision this dataset, which is not as challenging as noisy and sparsely measured real-world datasets but (as we show) still difficult for off-the-shelf architectures, to be a testing ground for architectures that incorporate the rich topological and geometric priors underlying characteristic classes.

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As language models are applied to an increasing number of real-world applications, understanding their inner workings has become an important issue in model trust, interpretability, and transparency. In this work we show that representation dissimilarity measures, which are functions that measure the extent to which two model's internal representations differ, can be a valuable tool for gaining insight into the mechanics of language models. Among our insights are: (i) an apparent asymmetry in the internal representations of model using SoLU and GeLU activation functions, (ii) evidence that dissimilarity measures can identify and locate generalization properties of models that are invisible via in-distribution test set performance, and (iii) new evaluations of how language model features vary as width and depth are increased. Our results suggest that dissimilarity measures are a promising set of tools for shedding light on the inner workings of language models.

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By now there is substantial evidence that deep learning models learn certain human-interpretable features as part of their internal representations of data. As having the right (or wrong) concepts is critical to trustworthy machine learning systems, it is natural to ask which inputs from the model's original training set were most important for learning a concept at a given layer. To answer this, we combine data attribution methods with methods for probing the concepts learned by a model. Training network and probe ensembles for two concept datasets on a range of network layers, we use the recently developed TRAK method for large-scale data attribution. We find some evidence for convergence, where removing the 10,000 top attributing images for a concept and retraining the model does not change the location of the concept in the network nor the probing sparsity of the concept. This suggests that rather than being highly dependent on a few specific examples, the features that inform the development of a concept are spread in a more diffuse manner across its exemplars, implying robustness in concept formation.

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Mathilde Papillon, Mustafa Hajij, Florian Frantzen, Josef Hoppe, Helen Jenne, Johan Mathe, Audun Myers, Theodore Papamarkou, Michael T. Schaub, Ghada Zamzmi(+55 more)

This paper presents the computational challenge on topological deep learning that was hosted within the ICML 2023 Workshop on Topology and Geometry in Machine Learning. The competition asked participants to provide open-source implementations of topological neural networks from the literature by contributing to the python packages TopoNetX (data processing) and TopoModelX (deep learning). The challenge attracted twenty-eight qualifying submissions in its two-month duration. This paper describes the design of the challenge and summarizes its main findings.

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Instruction finetuning is a popular paradigm to align large language models (LLM) with human intent. Despite its popularity, this idea is less explored in improving the LLMs to align existing foundation models with scientific disciplines, concepts and goals. In this work, we present SciTune as a tuning framework to improve the ability of LLMs to follow scientific multimodal instructions. To test our methodology, we use a human-generated scientific instruction tuning dataset and train a large multimodal model LLaMA-SciTune that connects a vision encoder and LLM for science-focused visual and language understanding. In comparison to the models that are finetuned with machine generated data only, LLaMA-SciTune surpasses human performance on average and in many sub-categories on the ScienceQA benchmark.

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In the last decade, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and transformer based object detectors have achieved high performance on a large variety of datasets. Though the majority of detection literature has developed this capability on datasets such as MS COCO, these detectors have still proven effective for remote sensing applications. Challenges in this particular domain, such as small numbers of annotated objects and low object density, hinder overall performance. In this work, we present a novel augmentation method, called collage pasting, for increasing the object density without a need for segmentation masks, thereby improving the detector performance. We demonstrate that collage pasting improves precision and recall beyond related methods, such as mosaic augmentation, and enables greater control of object density. However, we find that collage pasting is vulnerable to certain out-of-distribution shifts, such as image corruptions. To address this, we introduce two simple approaches for combining collage pasting with PixMix augmentation method, and refer to our combined techniques as ColMix. Through extensive experiments, we show that employing ColMix results in detectors with superior performance on aerial imagery datasets and robust to various corruptions.

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Past work exploring adversarial vulnerability have focused on situations where an adversary can perturb all dimensions of model input. On the other hand, a range of recent works consider the case where either (i) an adversary can perturb a limited number of input parameters or (ii) a subset of modalities in a multimodal problem. In both of these cases, adversarial examples are effectively constrained to a subspace $V$ in the ambient input space $\mathcal{X}$. Motivated by this, in this work we investigate how adversarial vulnerability depends on $\dim(V)$. In particular, we show that the adversarial success of standard PGD attacks with $\ell^p$ norm constraints behaves like a monotonically increasing function of $\epsilon (\frac{\dim(V)}{\dim \mathcal{X}})^{\frac{1}{q}}$ where $\epsilon$ is the perturbation budget and $\frac{1}{p} + \frac{1}{q} =1$, provided $p > 1$ (the case $p=1$ presents additional subtleties which we analyze in some detail). This functional form can be easily derived from a simple toy linear model, and as such our results land further credence to arguments that adversarial examples are endemic to locally linear models on high dimensional spaces.

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Linear neural network layers that are either equivariant or invariant to permutations of their inputs form core building blocks of modern deep learning architectures. Examples include the layers of DeepSets, as well as linear layers occurring in attention blocks of transformers and some graph neural networks. The space of permutation equivariant linear layers can be identified as the invariant subspace of a certain symmetric group representation, and recent work parameterized this space by exhibiting a basis whose vectors are sums over orbits of standard basis elements with respect to the symmetric group action. A parameterization opens up the possibility of learning the weights of permutation equivariant linear layers via gradient descent. The space of permutation equivariant linear layers is a generalization of the partition algebra, an object first discovered in statistical physics with deep connections to the representation theory of the symmetric group, and the basis described above generalizes the so-called orbit basis of the partition algebra. We exhibit an alternative basis, generalizing the diagram basis of the partition algebra, with computational benefits stemming from the fact that the tensors making up the basis are low rank in the sense that they naturally factorize into Kronecker products. Just as multiplication by a rank one matrix is far less expensive than multiplication by an arbitrary matrix, multiplication with these low rank tensors is far less expensive than multiplication with elements of the orbit basis. Finally, we describe an algorithm implementing multiplication with these basis elements.

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Successful deployment in uncertain, real-world environments requires that deep learning models can be efficiently and reliably modified in order to adapt to unexpected issues. However, the current trend toward ever-larger models makes standard retraining procedures an ever-more expensive burden. For this reason, there is growing interest in model editing, which enables computationally inexpensive, interpretable, post-hoc model modifications. While many model editing techniques are promising, research on the properties of edited models is largely limited to evaluation of validation accuracy. The robustness of edited models is an important and yet mostly unexplored topic. In this paper, we employ recently developed techniques from the field of deep learning robustness to investigate both how model editing affects the general robustness of a model, as well as the robustness of the specific behavior targeted by the edit. We find that edits tend to reduce general robustness, but that the degree of degradation depends on the editing algorithm chosen. In particular, robustness is best preserved by more constrained techniques that modify less of the model. Motivated by these observations, we introduce two new model editing algorithms, direct low-rank model editing and 1-layer interpolation (1-LI), which each exhibit strong generalization performance.

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