Recently, researchers have shown that the beamforming feedback angles (BFAs) used for Wi-Fi multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) operations can be effectively leveraged as a proxy of the channel frequency response (CFR) for different purposes. Examples are passive human activity recognition and device fingerprinting. However, even though the BFAs report frames are sent in clear text, there is not yet a unified open-source tool to extract and decode the BFAs from the frames. To fill this gap, we developed Wi-BFI, the first tool that allows retrieving Wi-Fi BFAs and reconstructing the beamforming feedback information (BFI) - a compressed representation of the CFR - from the BFAs frames captured over the air. The tool supports BFAs extraction within both IEEE 802.11ac and 802.11ax networks operating on radio channels with 160/80/40/20 MHz bandwidth. Both multi-user and single-user MIMO feedback can be decoded through Wi-BFI. The tool supports real-time and offline extraction and storage of BFAs and BFI. The real-time mode also includes a visual representation of the channel state that continuously updates based on the collected data. Wi-BFI code is open source and the tool is also available as a pip package.
In the last years, several machine learning-based techniques have been proposed to monitor human movements from Wi-Fi channel readings. However, the development of domain-adaptive algorithms that robustly work across different environments is still an open problem, whose solution requires large datasets characterized by strong domain diversity, in terms of environments, persons and Wi-Fi hardware. To date, the few public datasets available are mostly obsolete - as obtained via Wi-Fi devices operating on 20 or 40 MHz bands - and contain little or no domain diversity, thus dramatically limiting the advancements in the design of sensing algorithms. The present contribution aims to fill this gap by providing a dataset of IEEE 802.11ac channel measurements over an 80 MHz bandwidth channel featuring notable domain diversity, through measurement campaigns that involved thirteen subjects across different environments, days, and with different hardware. Novel experimental data is provided by blocking the direct path between the transmitter and the monitor, and collecting measurements in a semi-anechoic chamber (no multi-path fading). Overall, the dataset - available on IEEE DataPort  - contains more than thirteen hours of channel state information readings (23.6 GB), allowing researchers to test activity/identity recognition and people counting algorithms.
In this paper, we propose BeamSense, a completely novel approach to implement standard-compliant Wi-Fi sensing applications. Wi-Fi sensing enables game-changing applications in remote healthcare, home entertainment, and home surveillance, among others. However, existing work leverages the manual extraction of channel state information (CSI) from Wi-Fi chips to classify activities, which is not supported by the Wi-Fi standard and hence requires the usage of specialized equipment. On the contrary, BeamSense leverages the standard-compliant beamforming feedback information (BFI) to characterize the propagation environment. Conversely from CSI, the BFI (i) can be easily recorded without any firmware modification, and (ii) captures the multiple channels between the access point and the stations, thus providing much better sensitivity. BeamSense includes a novel cross-domain few-shot learning (FSL) algorithm to handle unseen environments and subjects with few additional data points. We evaluate BeamSense through an extensive data collection campaign with three subjects performing twenty different activities in three different environments. We show that our BFI-based approach achieves about 10% more accuracy when compared to CSI-based prior work, while our FSL strategy improves accuracy by up to 30% and 80% when compared with state-of-the-art cross-domain algorithms.
Prescriptive Process Monitoring is a prominent problem in Process Mining, which consists in identifying a set of actions to be recommended with the goal of optimising a target measure of interest or Key Performance Indicator (KPI). One challenge that makes this problem difficult is the need to provide Prescriptive Process Monitoring techniques only based on temporally annotated (process) execution data, stored in, so-called execution logs, due to the lack of well crafted and human validated explicit models. In this paper we aim at proposing an AI based approach that learns, by means of Reinforcement Learning (RL), an optimal policy (almost) only from the observation of past executions and recommends the best activities to carry on for optimizing a KPI of interest. This is achieved first by learning a Markov Decision Process for the specific KPIs from data, and then by using RL training to learn the optimal policy. The approach is validated on real and synthetic datasets and compared with off-policy Deep RL approaches. The ability of our approach to compare with, and often overcome, Deep RL approaches provides a contribution towards the exploitation of white box RL techniques in scenarios where only temporal execution data are available.
As Wi-Fi becomes ubiquitous in public and private spaces, it becomes natural to leverage its intrinsic ability to sense the surrounding environment to implement groundbreaking wireless sensing applications such as human presence detection, activity recognition, and object tracking. For this reason, the IEEE 802.11bf Task Group is defining the appropriate modifications to existing Wi-Fi standards to enhance sensing capabilities through 802.11-compliant devices. However, the new standard is expected to leave the specific sensing algorithms open to implementation. To fill this gap, this article explores the practical implications of integrating sensing and communications into Wi-Fi networks. We provide an overview of the support that will enable sensing applications, together with an in-depth analysis of the role of different devices in a Wi-Fi sensing system and a description of the open research challenges. Moreover, an experimental evaluation with off-the-shelf devices provides suggestions about the parameters to be considered when designing Wi-Fi sensing systems. To make such an evaluation replicable, we pledge to release all of our dataset and code to the community.
We present DeepCSI, a novel approach to Wi-Fi radio fingerprinting (RFP) which leverages standard-compliant beamforming feedback matrices to authenticate MU-MIMO Wi-Fi devices on the move. By capturing unique imperfections in off-the-shelf radio circuitry, RFP techniques can identify wireless devices directly at the physical layer, allowing low-latency low-energy cryptography-free authentication. However, existing Wi-Fi RFP techniques are based on software-defined radio (SDRs), which may ultimately prevent their widespread adoption. Moreover, it is unclear whether existing strategies can work in the presence of MU-MIMO transmitters - a key technology in modern Wi-Fi standards. Conversely from prior work, DeepCSI does not require SDR technologies and can be run on any low-cost Wi-Fi device to authenticate MU-MIMO transmitters. Our key intuition is that imperfections in the transmitter's radio circuitry percolate onto the beamforming feedback matrix, and thus RFP can be performed without explicit channel state information (CSI) computation. DeepCSI is robust to inter-stream and inter-user interference being the beamforming feedback not affected by those phenomena. We extensively evaluate the performance of DeepCSI through a massive data collection campaign performed in the wild with off-the-shelf equipment, where 10 MU-MIMO Wi-Fi radios emit signals in different positions. Experimental results indicate that DeepCSI correctly identifies the transmitter with an accuracy of up to 98%. The identification accuracy remains above 82% when the device moves within the environment. To allow replicability and provide a performance benchmark, we pledge to share the 800 GB datasets - collected in static and, for the first time, dynamic conditions - and the code database with the community.
Here, we propose an original approach for human activity recognition (HAR) with commercial IEEE 802.11ac (WiFi) devices, which generalizes across different persons, days and environments. To achieve this, we devise a technique to extract, clean and process the received phases from the channel frequency response (CFR) of the WiFi channel, obtaining an estimate of the Doppler shift at the receiver of the communication link. The Doppler shift reveals the presence of moving scatterers in the environment, while not being affected by (environment specific) static objects. The proposed HAR framework is trained on data collected as a person performs four different activities and is tested on unseen setups, to assess its performance as the person, the day and/or the environment change with respect to those considered at training time. In the worst case scenario, the proposed HAR technique reaches an average accuracy higher than 95%, validating the effectiveness of the extracted Doppler information, used in conjunction with a learning algorithm based on a neural network, in recognizing human activities in a subject and environment independent fashion.