We propose a novel non-negative spherical relaxation for optimization problems over binary matrices with injectivity constraints, which in particular has applications in multi-matching and clustering. We relax respective binary matrix constraints to the (high-dimensional) non-negative sphere. To optimize our relaxed problem, we use a conditional power iteration method to iteratively improve the objective function, while at same time sweeping over a continuous scalar parameter that is (indirectly) related to the universe size (or number of clusters). Opposed to existing procedures that require to fix the integer universe size before optimization, our method automatically adjusts the analogous continuous parameter. Furthermore, while our approach shares similarities with spectral multi-matching and spectral clustering, our formulation has the strong advantage that we do not rely on additional post-processing procedures to obtain binary results. Our method shows compelling results in various multi-matching and clustering settings, even when compared to methods that use the ground truth universe size (or number of clusters).
We propose a novel unsupervised learning approach for non-rigid 3D shape matching. Our approach improves upon recent state-of-the art deep functional map methods and can be applied to a broad range of different challenging scenarios. Previous deep functional map methods mainly focus on feature extraction and aim exclusively at obtaining more expressive features for functional map computation. However, the importance of the functional map computation itself is often neglected and the relationship between the functional map and point-wise map is underexplored. In this paper, we systematically investigate the coupling relationship between the functional map from the functional map solver and the point-wise map based on feature similarity. To this end, we propose a self-adaptive functional map solver to adjust the functional map regularisation for different shape matching scenarios, together with a vertex-wise contrastive loss to obtain more discriminative features. Using different challenging datasets (including non-isometry, topological noise and partiality), we demonstrate that our method substantially outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods.
In this work we propose to combine the advantages of learning-based and combinatorial formalisms for 3D shape matching. While learning-based shape matching solutions lead to state-of-the-art matching performance, they do not ensure geometric consistency, so that obtained matchings are locally unsmooth. On the contrary, axiomatic methods allow to take geometric consistency into account by explicitly constraining the space of valid matchings. However, existing axiomatic formalisms are impractical since they do not scale to practically relevant problem sizes, or they require user input for the initialisation of non-convex optimisation problems. In this work we aim to close this gap by proposing a novel combinatorial solver that combines a unique set of favourable properties: our approach is (i) initialisation free, (ii) massively parallelisable powered by a quasi-Newton method, (iii) provides optimality gaps, and (iv) delivers decreased runtime and globally optimal results for many instances.
Finding correspondences between 3D shapes is a crucial problem in computer vision and graphics, which is for example relevant for tasks like shape interpolation, pose transfer, or texture transfer. An often neglected but essential property of matchings is geometric consistency, which means that neighboring triangles in one shape are consistently matched to neighboring triangles in the other shape. Moreover, while in practice one often has only access to partial observations of a 3D shape (e.g. due to occlusion, or scanning artifacts), there do not exist any methods that directly address geometrically consistent partial shape matching. In this work we fill this gap by proposing to integrate state-of-the-art deep shape features into a novel integer linear programming partial shape matching formulation. Our optimization yields a globally optimal solution on low resolution shapes, which we then refine using a coarse-to-fine scheme. We show that our method can find more reliable results on partial shapes in comparison to existing geometrically consistent algorithms (for which one first has to fill missing parts with a dummy geometry). Moreover, our matchings are substantially smoother than learning-based state-of-the-art shape matching methods.
We propose a novel mixed-integer programming (MIP) formulation for generating precise sparse correspondences for highly non-rigid shapes. To this end, we introduce a projected Laplace-Beltrami operator (PLBO) which combines intrinsic and extrinsic geometric information to measure the deformation quality induced by predicted correspondences. We integrate the PLBO, together with an orientation-aware regulariser, into a novel MIP formulation that can be solved to global optimality for many practical problems. In contrast to previous methods, our approach is provably invariant to rigid transformations and global scaling, initialisation-free, has optimality guarantees, and scales to high resolution meshes with (empirically observed) linear time. We show state-of-the-art results for sparse non-rigid matching on several challenging 3D datasets, including data with inconsistent meshing, as well as applications in mesh-to-point-cloud matching.
As deep learning models continue to advance and are increasingly utilized in real-world systems, the issue of robustness remains a major challenge. Existing certified training methods produce models that achieve high provable robustness guarantees at certain perturbation levels. However, the main problem of such models is a dramatically low standard accuracy, i.e. accuracy on clean unperturbed data, that makes them impractical. In this work, we consider a more realistic perspective of maximizing the robustness of a model at certain levels of (high) standard accuracy. To this end, we propose a novel certified training method based on a key insight that training with adaptive certified radii helps to improve both the accuracy and robustness of the model, advancing state-of-the-art accuracy-robustness tradeoffs. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method on MNIST, CIFAR-10, and TinyImageNet datasets. Particularly, on CIFAR-10 and TinyImageNet, our method yields models with up to two times higher robustness, measured as an average certified radius of a test set, at the same levels of standard accuracy compared to baseline approaches.
Flows in networks (or graphs) play a significant role in numerous computer vision tasks. The scalar-valued edges in these graphs often lead to a loss of information and thereby to limitations in terms of expressiveness. For example, oftentimes high-dimensional data (e.g. feature descriptors) are mapped to a single scalar value (e.g. the similarity between two feature descriptors). To overcome this limitation, we propose a novel formalism for non-separable multi-dimensional network flows. By doing so, we enable an automatic and adaptive feature selection strategy - since the flow is defined on a per-dimension basis, the maximizing flow automatically chooses the best matching feature dimensions. As a proof of concept, we apply our formalism to the multi-object tracking problem and demonstrate that our approach outperforms scalar formulations on the MOT16 benchmark in terms of robustness to noise.
We propose a novel learning-based approach for robust 3D shape matching. Our method builds upon deep functional maps and can be trained in a fully unsupervised manner. Previous deep functional map methods mainly focus on predicting optimised functional maps alone, and then rely on off-the-shelf post-processing to obtain accurate point-wise maps during inference. However, this two-stage procedure for obtaining point-wise maps often yields sub-optimal performance. In contrast, building upon recent insights about the relation between functional maps and point-wise maps, we propose a novel unsupervised loss to couple the functional maps and point-wise maps, and thereby directly obtain point-wise maps without any post-processing. Our approach obtains accurate correspondences not only for near-isometric shapes, but also for more challenging non-isometric shapes and partial shapes, as well as shapes with different discretisation or topological noise. Using a total of nine diverse datasets, we extensively evaluate the performance and demonstrate that our method substantially outperforms previous state-of-the-art methods, even compared to recent supervised methods. Our code is available at https://github.com/dongliangcao/Unsupervised-Learning-of-Robust-Spectral-Shape-Matching.
The matching of 3D shapes has been extensively studied for shapes represented as surface meshes, as well as for shapes represented as point clouds. While point clouds are a common representation of raw real-world 3D data (e.g. from laser scanners), meshes encode rich and expressive topological information, but their creation typically requires some form of (often manual) curation. In turn, methods that purely rely on point clouds are unable to meet the matching quality of mesh-based methods that utilise the additional topological structure. In this work we close this gap by introducing a self-supervised multimodal learning strategy that combines mesh-based functional map regularisation with a contrastive loss that couples mesh and point cloud data. Our shape matching approach allows to obtain intramodal correspondences for triangle meshes, complete point clouds, and partially observed point clouds, as well as correspondences across these data modalities. We demonstrate that our method achieves state-of-the-art results on several challenging benchmark datasets even in comparison to recent supervised methods, and that our method reaches previously unseen cross-dataset generalisation ability.
Many challenges from natural world can be formulated as a graph matching problem. Previous deep learning-based methods mainly consider a full two-graph matching setting. In this work, we study the more general partial matching problem with multi-graph cycle consistency guarantees. Building on a recent progress in deep learning on graphs, we propose a novel data-driven method (URL) for partial multi-graph matching, which uses an object-to-universe formulation and learns latent representations of abstract universe points. The proposed approach advances the state of the art in semantic keypoint matching problem, evaluated on Pascal VOC, CUB, and Willow datasets. Moreover, the set of controlled experiments on a synthetic graph matching dataset demonstrates the scalability of our method to graphs with large number of nodes and its robustness to high partiality.