The shared real-time information about natural disasters on social media platforms like Twitter and Facebook plays a critical role in informing volunteers, emergency managers, and response organizations. However, supervised learning models for monitoring disaster events require large amounts of annotated data, making them unrealistic for real-time use in disaster events. To address this challenge, we present a fine-grained disaster tweet classification model under the semi-supervised, few-shot learning setting where only a small number of annotated data is required. Our model, CrisisMatch, effectively classifies tweets into fine-grained classes of interest using few labeled data and large amounts of unlabeled data, mimicking the early stage of a disaster. Through integrating effective semi-supervised learning ideas and incorporating TextMixUp, CrisisMatch achieves performance improvement on two disaster datasets of 11.2\% on average. Further analyses are also provided for the influence of the number of labeled data and out-of-domain results.
Identification of fine-grained location mentions in crisis tweets is central in transforming situational awareness information extracted from social media into actionable information. Most prior works have focused on identifying generic locations, without considering their specific types. To facilitate progress on the fine-grained location identification task, we assemble two tweet crisis datasets and manually annotate them with specific location types. The first dataset contains tweets from a mixed set of crisis events, while the second dataset contains tweets from the global COVID-19 pandemic. We investigate the performance of state-of-the-art deep learning models for sequence tagging on these datasets, in both in-domain and cross-domain settings.
Tweet hashtags have the potential to improve the search for information during disaster events. However, there is a large number of disaster-related tweets that do not have any user-provided hashtags. Moreover, only a small number of tweets that contain actionable hashtags are useful for disaster response. To facilitate progress on automatic identification (or extraction) of disaster hashtags for Twitter data, we construct a unique dataset of disaster-related tweets annotated with hashtags useful for filtering actionable information. Using this dataset, we further investigate Long Short Term Memory-based models within a Multi-Task Learning framework. The best performing model achieves an F1-score as high as 92.22%. The dataset, code, and other resources are available on Github.
While keyphrase extraction has received considerable attention in recent years, relatively few studies exist on extracting keyphrases from social media platforms such as Twitter, and even fewer for extracting disaster-related keyphrases from such sources. During a disaster, keyphrases can be extremely useful for filtering relevant tweets that can enhance situational awareness. Previously, joint training of two different layers of a stacked Recurrent Neural Network for keyword discovery and keyphrase extraction had been shown to be effective in extracting keyphrases from general Twitter data. We improve the model's performance on both general Twitter data and disaster-related Twitter data by incorporating contextual word embeddings, POS-tags, phonetics, and phonological features. Moreover, we discuss the shortcomings of the often used F1-measure for evaluating the quality of predicted keyphrases with respect to the ground truth annotations. Instead of the F1-measure, we propose the use of embedding-based metrics to better capture the correctness of the predicted keyphrases. In addition, we also present a novel extension of an embedding-based metric. The extension allows one to better control the penalty for the difference in the number of ground-truth and predicted keyphrases
* In The World Wide Web Conference (WWW '19), Ling Liu and Ryen
White (Eds.). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 1555-1566 (2019) * 12 pages, 7 figures
Traditional post-disaster assessment of damage heavily relies on expensive GIS data, especially remote sensing image data. In recent years, social media has become a rich source of disaster information that may be useful in assessing damage at a lower cost. Such information includes text (e.g., tweets) or images posted by eyewitnesses of a disaster. Most of the existing research explores the use of text in identifying situational awareness information useful for disaster response teams. The use of social media images to assess disaster damage is limited. In this paper, we propose a novel approach, based on convolutional neural networks and class activation maps, to locate damage in a disaster image and to quantify the degree of the damage. Our proposed approach enables the use of social network images for post-disaster damage assessment and provides an inexpensive and feasible alternative to the more expensive GIS approach.
We describe our language-independent unsupervised word sense induction system. This system only uses topic features to cluster different word senses in their global context topic space. Using unlabeled data, this system trains a latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) topic model then uses it to infer the topics distribution of the test instances. By clustering these topics distributions in their topic space we cluster them into different senses. Our hypothesis is that closeness in topic space reflects similarity between different word senses. This system participated in SemEval-2 word sense induction and disambiguation task and achieved the second highest V-measure score among all other systems.
* Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Semantic
Evaluation, pages 367-370, Uppsala, Sweden, July 2010. Association for