This paper presents BELT, a novel model and learning framework for the pivotal topic of brain-to-language translation research. The translation from noninvasive brain signals into readable natural language has the potential to promote the application scenario as well as the development of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) as a whole. The critical problem in brain signal decoding or brain-to-language translation is the acquisition of semantically appropriate and discriminative EEG representation from a dataset of limited scale and quality. The proposed BELT method is a generic and efficient framework that bootstraps EEG representation learning using off-the-shelf large-scale pretrained language models (LMs). With a large LM's capacity for understanding semantic information and zero-shot generalization, BELT utilizes large LMs trained on Internet-scale datasets to bring significant improvements to the understanding of EEG signals. In particular, the BELT model is composed of a deep conformer encoder and a vector quantization encoder. Semantical EEG representation is achieved by a contrastive learning step that provides natural language supervision. We achieve state-of-the-art results on two featuring brain decoding tasks including the brain-to-language translation and zero-shot sentiment classification. Specifically, our model surpasses the baseline model on both tasks by 5.45% and over 10% and archives a 42.31% BLEU-1 score and 67.32% precision on the main evaluation metrics for translation and zero-shot sentiment classification respectively.
Making sense of multiple modalities can yield a more comprehensive description of real-world phenomena. However, learning the co-representation of diverse modalities is still a long-standing endeavor in emerging machine learning applications and research. Previous generative approaches for multimodal input approximate a joint-modality posterior by uni-modality posteriors as product-of-experts (PoE) or mixture-of-experts (MoE). We argue that these approximations lead to a defective bound for the optimization process and loss of semantic connection among modalities. This paper presents a novel variational method on sets called the Set Multimodal VAE (SMVAE) for learning a multimodal latent space while handling the missing modality problem. By modeling the joint-modality posterior distribution directly, the proposed SMVAE learns to exchange information between multiple modalities and compensate for the drawbacks caused by factorization. In public datasets of various domains, the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is applicable to order-agnostic cross-modal generation while achieving outstanding performance compared to the state-of-the-art multimodal methods. The source code for our method is available online https://anonymous.4open.science/r/SMVAE-9B3C/.
Over the years, Machine Learning models have been successfully employed on neuroimaging data for accurately predicting brain age. Deviations from the healthy brain aging pattern are associated to the accelerated brain aging and brain abnormalities. Hence, efficient and accurate diagnosis techniques are required for eliciting accurate brain age estimations. Several contributions have been reported in the past for this purpose, resorting to different data-driven modeling methods. Recently, deep neural networks (also referred to as deep learning) have become prevalent in manifold neuroimaging studies, including brain age estimation. In this review, we offer a comprehensive analysis of the literature related to the adoption of deep learning for brain age estimation with neuroimaging data. We detail and analyze different deep learning architectures used for this application, pausing at research works published to date quantitatively exploring their application. We also examine different brain age estimation frameworks, comparatively exposing their advantages and weaknesses. Finally, the review concludes with an outlook towards future directions that should be followed by prospective studies. The ultimate goal of this paper is to establish a common and informed reference for newcomers and experienced researchers willing to approach brain age estimation by using deep learning models
Federated learning is an emerging learning paradigm where multiple clients collaboratively train a machine learning model in a privacy-preserving manner. Personalized federated learning extends this paradigm to overcome heterogeneity across clients by learning personalized models. Recently, there have been some initial attempts to apply Transformers to federated learning. However, the impacts of federated learning algorithms on self-attention have not yet been studied. This paper investigates this relationship and reveals that federated averaging algorithms actually have a negative impact on self-attention where there is data heterogeneity. These impacts limit the capabilities of the Transformer model in federated learning settings. Based on this, we propose FedTP, a novel Transformer-based federated learning framework that learns personalized self-attention for each client while aggregating the other parameters among the clients. Instead of using a vanilla personalization mechanism that maintains personalized self-attention layers of each client locally, we develop a learn-to-personalize mechanism to further encourage the cooperation among clients and to increase the scablability and generalization of FedTP. Specifically, the learn-to-personalize is realized by learning a hypernetwork on the server that outputs the personalized projection matrices of self-attention layers to generate client-wise queries, keys and values. Furthermore, we present the generalization bound for FedTP with the learn-to-personalize mechanism. Notably, FedTP offers a convenient environment for performing a range of image and language tasks using the same federated network architecture - all of which benefit from Transformer personalization. Extensive experiments verify that FedTP with the learn-to-personalize mechanism yields state-of-the-art performance in non-IID scenarios. Our code is available online.
Distributed fuzzy neural networks (DFNNs) have attracted increasing attention recently due to their learning abilities in handling data uncertainties in distributed scenarios. However, it is challenging for DFNNs to handle cases in which the local data are non-independent and identically distributed (non-IID). In this paper, we propose a federated fuzzy neural network (FedFNN) with evolutionary rule learning (ERL) to cope with non-IID issues as well as data uncertainties. The FedFNN maintains a global set of rules in a server and a personalized subset of these rules for each local client. ERL is inspired by the theory of biological evolution; it encourages rule variations while activating superior rules and deactivating inferior rules for local clients with non-IID data. Specifically, ERL consists of two stages in an iterative procedure: a rule cooperation stage that updates global rules by aggregating local rules based on their activation statuses and a rule evolution stage that evolves the global rules and updates the activation statuses of the local rules. This procedure improves both the generalization and personalization of the FedFNN for dealing with non-IID issues and data uncertainties. Extensive experiments conducted on a range of datasets demonstrate the superiority of the FedFNN over state-of-the-art methods.
Electroencephalograms (EEGs) are brain dynamics measured outside the brain, which have been widely utilized in non-invasive brain-computer interface applications. Recently, various neural network approaches have been proposed to improve the accuracy of EEG signal recognition. However, these approaches severely rely on manually designed network structures for different tasks which generally are not sharing the same empirical design cross-task-wise. In this paper, we propose a cross-task neural architecture search (CTNAS-EEG) framework for EEG signal recognition, which can automatically design the network structure across tasks and improve the recognition accuracy of EEG signals. Specifically, a compatible search space for cross-task searching and an efficient constrained searching method is proposed to overcome challenges brought by EEG signals. By unifying structure search on different EEG tasks, this work is the first to explore and analyze the searched structure difference cross-task-wise. Moreover, by introducing architecture search, this work is the first to analyze model performance by customizing model structure for each human subject. Detailed experimental results suggest that the proposed CTNAS-EEG could reach state-of-the-art performance on different EEG tasks, such as Motor Imagery (MI) and Emotion recognition. Extensive experiments and detailed analysis are provided as a good reference for follow-up researchers.
Recently, distributed semi-supervised learning (DSSL) algorithms have shown their effectiveness in leveraging unlabeled samples over interconnected networks, where agents cannot share their original data with each other and can only communicate non-sensitive information with their neighbors. However, existing DSSL algorithms cannot cope with data uncertainties and may suffer from high computation and communication overhead problems. To handle these issues, we propose a distributed semi-supervised fuzzy regression (DSFR) model with fuzzy if-then rules and interpolation consistency regularization (ICR). The ICR, which was proposed recently for semi-supervised problem, can force decision boundaries to pass through sparse data areas, thus increasing model robustness. However, its application in distributed scenarios has not been considered yet. In this work, we proposed a distributed Fuzzy C-means (DFCM) method and a distributed interpolation consistency regularization (DICR) built on the well-known alternating direction method of multipliers to respectively locate parameters in antecedent and consequent components of DSFR. Notably, the DSFR model converges very fast since it does not involve back-propagation procedure and is scalable to large-scale datasets benefiting from the utilization of DFCM and DICR. Experiments results on both artificial and real-world datasets show that the proposed DSFR model can achieve much better performance than the state-of-the-art DSSL algorithm in terms of both loss value and computational cost.
Heterogeneous big data poses many challenges in machine learning. Its enormous scale, high dimensionality, and inherent uncertainty make almost every aspect of machine learning difficult, from providing enough processing power to maintaining model accuracy to protecting privacy. However, perhaps the most imposing problem is that big data is often interspersed with sensitive personal data. Hence, we propose a privacy-preserving hierarchical fuzzy neural network (PP-HFNN) to address these technical challenges while also alleviating privacy concerns. The network is trained with a two-stage optimization algorithm, and the parameters at low levels of the hierarchy are learned with a scheme based on the well-known alternating direction method of multipliers, which does not reveal local data to other agents. Coordination at high levels of the hierarchy is handled by the alternating optimization method, which converges very quickly. The entire training procedure is scalable, fast and does not suffer from gradient vanishing problems like the methods based on back-propagation. Comprehensive simulations conducted on both regression and classification tasks demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.
The multiple-target self-organizing pursuit (SOP) problem has wide applications and has been considered a challenging self-organization game for distributed systems, in which intelligent agents cooperatively pursue multiple dynamic targets with partial observations. This work proposes a framework for decentralized multi-agent systems to improve intelligent agents' search and pursuit capabilities. We model a self-organizing system as a partially observable Markov game (POMG) with the features of decentralization, partial observation, and noncommunication. The proposed distributed algorithm: fuzzy self-organizing cooperative coevolution (FSC2) is then leveraged to resolve the three challenges in multi-target SOP: distributed self-organizing search (SOS), distributed task allocation, and distributed single-target pursuit. FSC2 includes a coordinated multi-agent deep reinforcement learning method that enables homogeneous agents to learn natural SOS patterns. Additionally, we propose a fuzzy-based distributed task allocation method, which locally decomposes multi-target SOP into several single-target pursuit problems. The cooperative coevolution principle is employed to coordinate distributed pursuers for each single-target pursuit problem. Therefore, the uncertainties of inherent partial observation and distributed decision-making in the POMG can be alleviated. The experimental results demonstrate that distributed noncommunicating multi-agent coordination with partial observations in all three subtasks are effective, and 2048 FSC2 agents can perform efficient multi-target SOP with an almost 100% capture rate.
Autoencoder can give rise to an appropriate latent representation of the input data, however, the representation which is solely based on the intrinsic property of the input data, is usually inferior to express some semantic information. A typical case is the potential incapability of forming a clear boundary upon clustering of these representations. By encoding the latent representation that not only depends on the content of the input data, but also the semantic of the input data, such as label information, we propose an enhanced autoencoder architecture named semantic autoencoder. Experiments of representation distribution via t-SNE shows a clear distinction between these two types of encoders and confirm the supremacy of the semantic one, whilst the decoded samples of these two types of autoencoders exhibit faint dissimilarity either objectively or subjectively. Based on this observation, we consider adversarial attacks to learning algorithms that rely on the latent representation obtained via autoencoders. It turns out that latent contents of adversarial samples constructed from semantic encoder with deliberate wrong label information exhibit different distribution compared with that of the original input data, while both of these samples manifest very marginal difference. This new way of attack set up by our work is worthy of attention due to the necessity to secure the widespread deep learning applications.