Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal disease that not only affects movement, speech, and breath but also cognition. Recent studies have focused on the use of language analysis techniques to detect ALS and infer scales for monitoring functional progression. In this paper, we focused on another important aspect, cognitive impairment, which affects 35-50% of the ALS population. In an effort to reach the ALS population, which frequently exhibits mobility limitations, we implemented the digital version of the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioral ALS Screen (ECAS) test for the first time. This test which is designed to measure cognitive impairment was remotely performed by 56 participants from the EverythingALS Speech Study. As part of the study, participants (ALS and non-ALS) were asked to describe weekly one picture from a pool of many pictures with complex scenes displayed on their computer at home. We analyze the descriptions performed within +/- 60 days from the day the ECAS test was administered and extract different types of linguistic and acoustic features. We input those features into linear regression models to infer 5 ECAS sub-scores and the total score. Speech samples from the picture description are reliable enough to predict the ECAS subs-scores, achieving statistically significant Spearman correlation values between 0.32 and 0.51 for the model's performance using 10-fold cross-validation.
Chronic pain is a pervasive disorder which is often very disabling and is associated with comorbidities such as depression and anxiety. Neuropathic Pain (NP) is a common sub-type which is often caused due to nerve damage and has a known pathophysiology. Another common sub-type is Fibromyalgia (FM) which is described as musculoskeletal, diffuse pain that is widespread through the body. The pathophysiology of FM is poorly understood, making it very hard to diagnose. Standard medications and treatments for FM and NP differ from one another and if misdiagnosed it can cause an increase in symptom severity. To overcome this difficulty, we propose a novel framework, PainPoints, which accurately detects the sub-type of pain and generates clinical notes via summarizing the patient interviews. Specifically, PainPoints makes use of large language models to perform sentence-level classification of the text obtained from interviews of FM and NP patients with a reliable AUC of 0.83. Using a sufficiency-based interpretability approach, we explain how the fine-tuned model accurately picks up on the nuances that patients use to describe their pain. Finally, we generate summaries of these interviews via expert interventions by introducing a novel facet-based approach. PainPoints thus enables practitioners to add/drop facets and generate a custom summary based on the notion of "facet-coverage" which is also introduced in this work.