Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

Bingzhi Zhang, Junyu Liu, Xiao-Chuan Wu, Liang Jiang, Quntao Zhuang

Understanding the training dynamics of quantum neural networks is a fundamental task in quantum information science with wide impact in physics, chemistry and machine learning. In this work, we show that the late-time training dynamics of quantum neural networks can be described by the generalized Lotka-Volterra equations, which lead to a dynamical phase transition. When the targeted value of cost function crosses the minimum achievable value from above to below, the dynamics evolve from a frozen-kernel phase to a frozen-error phase, showing a duality between the quantum neural tangent kernel and the total error. In both phases, the convergence towards the fixed point is exponential, while at the critical point becomes polynomial. Via mapping the Hessian of the training dynamics to a Hamiltonian in the imaginary time, we reveal the nature of the phase transition to be second-order with the exponent $\nu=1$, where scale invariance and closing gap are observed at critical point. We also provide a non-perturbative analytical theory to explain the phase transition via a restricted Haar ensemble at late time, when the output state approaches the steady state. The theory findings are verified experimentally on IBM quantum devices.

Via

Bingzhi Zhang, Peng Xu, Xiaohui Chen, Quntao Zhuang

Deep generative models are key-enabling technology to computer vision, text generation and large language models. Denoising diffusion probabilistic models (DDPMs) have recently gained much attention due to their ability to generate diverse and high-quality samples in many computer vision tasks, as well as to incorporate flexible model architectures and relatively simple training scheme. Quantum generative models, empowered by entanglement and superposition, have brought new insight to learning classical and quantum data. Inspired by the classical counterpart, we propose the quantum denoising diffusion probabilistic models (QuDDPM) to enable efficiently trainable generative learning of quantum data. QuDDPM adopts sufficient layers of circuits to guarantee expressivity, while introduces multiple intermediate training tasks as interpolation between the target distribution and noise to avoid barren plateau and guarantee efficient training. We demonstrate QuDDPM's capability in learning correlated quantum noise model and learning topological structure of nontrivial distribution of quantum data.

Via

Bingzhi Zhang, Quntao Zhuang

Bosonic continuous-variable Variational quantum circuits (VQCs) are crucial for information processing in cavity quantum electrodynamics and optical systems, widely applicable in quantum communication, sensing and error correction. The trainability of such VQCs is less understood, hindered by the lack of theoretical tools such as $t$-design due to the infinite dimension of the physical systems involved. We overcome this difficulty to reveal an energy-dependent barren plateau in such VQCs. The variance of the gradient decays as $1/E^{M\nu}$, exponential in the number of modes $M$ but polynomial in the (per-mode) circuit energy $E$. The exponent $\nu=1$ for shallow circuits and $\nu=2$ for deep circuits. We prove these results for state preparation of general Gaussian states and number states. We also provide numerical evidence that the results extend to general state preparation tasks. As circuit energy is a controllable parameter, we provide a strategy to mitigate the barren plateau in continuous-variable VQCs.

Via