Detecting changes that occurred in a pair of 3D airborne LiDAR point clouds, acquired at two different times over the same geographical area, is a challenging task because of unmatching spatial supports and acquisition system noise. Most recent attempts to detect changes on point clouds are based on supervised methods, which require large labelled data unavailable in real-world applications. To address these issues, we propose an unsupervised approach that comprises two components: Neural Field (NF) for continuous shape reconstruction and a Gaussian Mixture Model for categorising changes. NF offer a grid-agnostic representation to encode bi-temporal point clouds with unmatched spatial support that can be regularised to increase high-frequency details and reduce noise. The reconstructions at each timestamp are compared at arbitrary spatial scales, leading to a significant increase in detection capabilities. We apply our method to a benchmark dataset of simulated LiDAR point clouds for urban sprawling. The dataset offers different challenging scenarios with different resolutions, input modalities and noise levels, allowing a multi-scenario comparison of our method with the current state-of-the-art. We boast the previous methods on this dataset by a 10% margin in intersection over union metric. In addition, we apply our methods to a real-world scenario to identify illegal excavation (looting) of archaeological sites and confirm that they match findings from field experts.
When applying deep learning to remote sensing data in archaeological research, a notable obstacle is the limited availability of suitable datasets for training models. The application of transfer learning is frequently employed to mitigate this drawback. However, there is still a need to explore its effectiveness when applied across different archaeological datasets. This paper compares the performance of various transfer learning configurations using two semantic segmentation deep neural networks on two LiDAR datasets. The experimental results indicate that transfer learning-based approaches in archaeology can lead to performance improvements, although a systematic enhancement has not yet been observed. We provide specific insights about the validity of such techniques that can serve as a baseline for future works.
This paper proposes JiGAN, a GAN-based method for solving Jigsaw puzzles with eroded or missing borders. Missing borders is a common real-world situation, for example, when dealing with the reconstruction of broken artifacts or ruined frescoes. In this particular condition, the puzzle's pieces do not align perfectly due to the borders' gaps; in this situation, the patches' direct match is unfeasible due to the lack of color and line continuations. JiGAN, is a two-steps procedure that tackles this issue: first, we repair the eroded borders with a GAN-based image extension model and measure the alignment affinity between pieces; then, we solve the puzzle with the relaxation labeling algorithm to enforce consistency in pieces positioning, hence, reconstructing the puzzle. We test the method on a large dataset of small puzzles and on three commonly used benchmark datasets to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.
The increasing need of restoring high-resolution Hyper-Spectral (HS) images is determining a growing reliance on Computer Vision-based processing to enhance the clarity of the image content. HS images can, in fact, suffer from degradation effects or artefacts caused by instrument limitations. This paper focuses on a procedure aimed at reducing the degradation effects, frequency-dependent blur and noise, in Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) images in reflection geometry. It describes the application of a joint deblurring and denoising approach that had been previously proved to be effective for the restoration of THz-TDS images in transmission geometry, but that had never been tested in reflection modality. This mode is often the only one that can be effectively used in most cases, for example when analyzing objects that are either opaque in the THz range, or that cannot be displaced from their location (e.g., museums), such as those of cultural interest. Compared to transmission mode, reflection geometry introduces, however, further distortion to THz data, neglected in existing literature. In this work, we successfully implement image deblurring and denoising of both uniform-shape samples (a contemporary 1 Euro cent coin and an inlaid pendant) and samples with the uneven reliefs and corrosion products on the surface which make the analysis of the object particularly complex (an ancient Roman silver coin). The study demonstrates the ability of image processing to restore data in the 0.25 - 6 THz range, spanning over more than four octaves, and providing the foundation for future analytical approaches of cultural heritage using the far-infrared spectrum still not sufficiently investigated in literature.