Get our free extension to see links to code for papers anywhere online!Free add-on: code for papers everywhere!Free add-on: See code for papers anywhere!

Authors:Soon Hoe Lim, Yijin Wang, Annan Yu, Emma Hart, Michael W. Mahoney, Xiaoye S. Li, N. Benjamin Erichson

Abstract:Flow matching has recently emerged as a powerful paradigm for generative modeling and has been extended to probabilistic time series forecasting in latent spaces. However, the impact of the specific choice of probability path model on forecasting performance remains under-explored. In this work, we demonstrate that forecasting spatio-temporal data with flow matching is highly sensitive to the selection of the probability path model. Motivated by this insight, we propose a novel probability path model designed to improve forecasting performance. Our empirical results across various dynamical system benchmarks show that our model achieves faster convergence during training and improved predictive performance compared to existing probability path models. Importantly, our approach is efficient during inference, requiring only a few sampling steps. This makes our proposed model practical for real-world applications and opens new avenues for probabilistic forecasting.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:State space models (SSMs) leverage linear, time-invariant (LTI) systems to effectively learn sequences with long-range dependencies. By analyzing the transfer functions of LTI systems, we find that SSMs exhibit an implicit bias toward capturing low-frequency components more effectively than high-frequency ones. This behavior aligns with the broader notion of frequency bias in deep learning model training. We show that the initialization of an SSM assigns it an innate frequency bias and that training the model in a conventional way does not alter this bias. Based on our theory, we propose two mechanisms to tune frequency bias: either by scaling the initialization to tune the inborn frequency bias; or by applying a Sobolev-norm-based filter to adjust the sensitivity of the gradients to high-frequency inputs, which allows us to change the frequency bias via training. Using an image-denoising task, we empirically show that we can strengthen, weaken, or even reverse the frequency bias using both mechanisms. By tuning the frequency bias, we can also improve SSMs' performance on learning long-range sequences, averaging an 88.26% accuracy on the Long-Range Arena (LRA) benchmark tasks.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:State-space models (SSMs) that utilize linear, time-invariant (LTI) systems are known for their effectiveness in learning long sequences. However, these models typically face several challenges: (i) they require specifically designed initializations of the system matrices to achieve state-of-the-art performance, (ii) they require training of state matrices on a logarithmic scale with very small learning rates to prevent instabilities, and (iii) they require the model to have exponentially decaying memory in order to ensure an asymptotically stable LTI system. To address these issues, we view SSMs through the lens of Hankel operator theory, which provides us with a unified theory for the initialization and training of SSMs. Building on this theory, we develop a new parameterization scheme, called HOPE, for LTI systems that utilizes Markov parameters within Hankel operators. This approach allows for random initializations of the LTI systems and helps to improve training stability, while also provides the SSMs with non-decaying memory capabilities. Our model efficiently implements these innovations by nonuniformly sampling the transfer functions of LTI systems, and it requires fewer parameters compared to canonical SSMs. When benchmarked against HiPPO-initialized models such as S4 and S4D, an SSM parameterized by Hankel operators demonstrates improved performance on Long-Range Arena (LRA) tasks. Moreover, we use a sequential CIFAR-10 task with padded noise to empirically corroborate our SSM's long memory capacity.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:State-space models (SSMs) have recently emerged as a framework for learning long-range sequence tasks. An example is the structured state-space sequence (S4) layer, which uses the diagonal-plus-low-rank structure of the HiPPO initialization framework. However, the complicated structure of the S4 layer poses challenges; and, in an effort to address these challenges, models such as S4D and S5 have considered a purely diagonal structure. This choice simplifies the implementation, improves computational efficiency, and allows channel communication. However, diagonalizing the HiPPO framework is itself an ill-posed problem. In this paper, we propose a general solution for this and related ill-posed diagonalization problems in machine learning. We introduce a generic, backward-stable "perturb-then-diagonalize" (PTD) methodology, which is based on the pseudospectral theory of non-normal operators, and which may be interpreted as the approximate diagonalization of the non-normal matrices defining SSMs. Based on this, we introduce the S4-PTD and S5-PTD models. Through theoretical analysis of the transfer functions of different initialization schemes, we demonstrate that the S4-PTD/S5-PTD initialization strongly converges to the HiPPO framework, while the S4D/S5 initialization only achieves weak convergences. As a result, our new models show resilience to Fourier-mode noise-perturbed inputs, a crucial property not achieved by the S4D/S5 models. In addition to improved robustness, our S5-PTD model averages 87.6% accuracy on the Long-Range Arena benchmark, demonstrating that the PTD methodology helps to improve the accuracy of deep learning models.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:Small generalization errors of over-parameterized neural networks (NNs) can be partially explained by the frequency biasing phenomenon, where gradient-based algorithms minimize the low-frequency misfit before reducing the high-frequency residuals. Using the Neural Tangent Kernel (NTK), one can provide a theoretically rigorous analysis for training where data are drawn from constant or piecewise-constant probability densities. Since most training data sets are not drawn from such distributions, we use the NTK model and a data-dependent quadrature rule to theoretically quantify the frequency biasing of NN training given fully nonuniform data. By replacing the loss function with a carefully selected Sobolev norm, we can further amplify, dampen, counterbalance, or reverse the intrinsic frequency biasing in NN training.

Via

Figures and Tables:

Abstract:The standard Universal Approximation Theorem for operator neural networks (NNs) holds for arbitrary width and bounded depth. Here, we prove that operator NNs of bounded width and arbitrary depth are universal approximators for continuous nonlinear operators. In our main result, we prove that for non-polynomial activation functions that are continuously differentiable at a point with a nonzero derivative, one can construct an operator NN of width five, whose inputs are real numbers with finite decimal representations, that is arbitrarily close to any given continuous nonlinear operator. We derive an analogous result for non-affine polynomial activation functions. We also show that depth has theoretical advantages by constructing operator ReLU NNs of depth $2k^3+8$ and constant width that cannot be well-approximated by any operator ReLU NN of depth $k$, unless its width is exponential in $k$.

Via