In recent years, online distillation has emerged as a powerful technique for adapting real-time deep neural networks on the fly using a slow, but accurate teacher model. However, a major challenge in online distillation is catastrophic forgetting when the domain shifts, which occurs when the student model is updated with data from the new domain and forgets previously learned knowledge. In this paper, we propose a solution to this issue by leveraging the power of continual learning methods to reduce the impact of domain shifts. Specifically, we integrate several state-of-the-art continual learning methods in the context of online distillation and demonstrate their effectiveness in reducing catastrophic forgetting. Furthermore, we provide a detailed analysis of our proposed solution in the case of cyclic domain shifts. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our approach in improving the robustness and accuracy of online distillation, with potential applications in domains such as video surveillance or autonomous driving. Overall, our work represents an important step forward in the field of online distillation and continual learning, with the potential to significantly impact real-world applications.
* Accepted at the 4th Workshop on Continual Learning in Computer Vision
Various tasks encountered in real-world surveillance can be addressed by determining posteriors (e.g. by Bayesian inference or machine learning), based on which critical decisions must be taken. However, the surveillance domain (acquisition device, operating conditions, etc.) is often unknown, which prevents any possibility of scene-specific optimization. In this paper, we define a probabilistic framework and present a formal proof of an algorithm for the unsupervised many-to-infinity domain adaptation of posteriors. Our proposed algorithm is applicable when the probability measure associated with the target domain is a convex combination of the probability measures of the source domains. It makes use of source models and a domain discriminator model trained off-line to compute posteriors adapted on the fly to the target domain. Finally, we show the effectiveness of our algorithm for the task of semantic segmentation in real-world surveillance. The code is publicly available at https://github.com/rvandeghen/MDA.
Road-vehicle accidents are mostly due to human errors, and many such accidents could be avoided by continuously monitoring the driver. Driver monitoring (DM) is a topic of growing interest in the automotive industry, and it will remain relevant for all vehicles that are not fully autonomous, and thus for decades for the average vehicle owner. The present paper focuses on the first step of DM, which consists in characterizing the state of the driver. Since DM will be increasingly linked to driving automation (DA), this paper presents a clear view of the role of DM at each of the six SAE levels of DA. This paper surveys the state of the art of DM, and then synthesizes it, providing a unique, structured, polychotomous view of the many characterization techniques of DM. Informed by the survey, the paper characterizes the driver state along the five main dimensions--called here "(sub)states"--of drowsiness, mental workload, distraction, emotions, and under the influence. The polychotomous view of DM is presented through a pair of interlocked tables that relate these states to their indicators (e.g., the eye-blink rate) and the sensors that can access each of these indicators (e.g., a camera). The tables factor in not only the effects linked directly to the driver, but also those linked to the (driven) vehicle and the (driving) environment. They show, at a glance, to concerned researchers, equipment providers, and vehicle manufacturers (1) most of the options they have to implement various forms of advanced DM systems, and (2) fruitful areas for further research and innovation.