Facial recognition is changing the way we live in and interact with our society. Here we discuss the two sides of facial recognition, summarizing potential risks and current concerns. We introduce current policies and regulations in different countries. Very importantly, we point out that the risks and concerns are not only from facial recognition, but also realistically very similar to other biometric recognition technology, including but not limited to gait recognition, iris recognition, fingerprint recognition, voice recognition, etc. To create a responsible future, we discuss possible technological moves and efforts that should be made to keep facial recognition (and biometric recognition in general) developing for social good.
Automated facial identification and facial expression recognition have been topics of active research over the past few decades. Facial and expression recognition find applications in human-computer interfaces, subject tracking, real-time security surveillance systems and social networking. Several holistic and geometric methods have been developed to identify faces and expressions using public and local facial image databases. In this work we present the evolution in facial image data sets and the methodologies for facial identification and recognition of expressions such as anger, sadness, happiness, disgust, fear and surprise. We observe that most of the earlier methods for facial and expression recognition aimed at improving the recognition rates for facial feature-based methods using static images. However, the recent methodologies have shifted focus towards robust implementation of facial/expression recognition from large image databases that vary with space (gathered from the internet) and time (video recordings). The evolution trends in databases and methodologies for facial and expression recognition can be useful for assessing the next-generation topics that may have applications in security systems or personal identification systems that involve "Quantitative face" assessments.
Current works formulate facial action unit (AU) recognition as a supervised learning problem, requiring fully AU-labeled facial images during training. It is challenging if not impossible to provide AU annotations for large numbers of facial images. Fortunately, AUs appear on all facial images, whether manually labeled or not, satisfy the underlying anatomic mechanisms and human behavioral habits. In this paper, we propose a deep semi-supervised framework for facial action unit recognition from partially AU-labeled facial images. Specifically, the proposed deep semi-supervised AU recognition approach consists of a deep recognition network and a discriminator D. The deep recognition network R learns facial representations from large-scale facial images and AU classifiers from limited ground truth AU labels. The discriminator D is introduced to enforce statistical similarity between the AU distribution inherent in ground truth AU labels and the distribution of the predicted AU labels from labeled and unlabeled facial images. The deep recognition network aims to minimize recognition loss from the labeled facial images, to faithfully represent inherent AU distribution for both labeled and unlabeled facial images, and to confuse the discriminator. During training, the deep recognition network R and the discriminator D are optimized alternately. Thus, the inherent AU distributions caused by underlying anatomic mechanisms are leveraged to construct better feature representations and AU classifiers from partially AU-labeled data during training. Experiments on two benchmark databases demonstrate that the proposed approach successfully captures AU distributions through adversarial learning and outperforms state-of-the-art AU recognition work.
This work explores facial expression bias as a security vulnerability of face recognition systems. Face recognition technology has experienced great advances during the last decades. However, despite the great performance achieved by state of the art face recognition systems, the algorithms are still sensitive to a large range of covariates. This work presents a comprehensive analysis of how facial expression bias impacts the performance of face recognition technologies. Our study analyzes: i) facial expression biases in the most popular face recognition databases; and ii) the impact of facial expression in face recognition performances. Our experimental framework includes four face detectors, three face recognition models, and four different databases. Our results demonstrate a huge facial expression bias in the most widely used databases, as well as a related impact of face expression in the performance of state-of-the-art algorithms. This work opens the door to new research lines focused on mitigating the observed vulnerability.
Facial expression recognition is a challenging task when neural network is applied to pattern recognition. Most of the current recognition research is based on single source facial data, which generally has the disadvantages of low accuracy and low robustness. In this paper, a neural network algorithm of facial expression recognition based on multimodal data fusion is proposed. The algorithm is based on the multimodal data, and it takes the facial image, the histogram of oriented gradient of the image and the facial landmarks as the input, and establishes CNN, LNN and HNN three sub neural networks to extract data features, using multimodal data feature fusion mechanism to improve the accuracy of facial expression recognition. Experimental results show that, benefiting by the complementarity of multimodal data, the algorithm has a great improvement in accuracy, robustness and detection speed compared with the traditional facial expression recognition algorithm. Especially in the case of partial occlusion, illumination and head posture transformation, the algorithm also shows a high confidence.
Extraction of discriminative features from salient facial patches plays a vital role in effective facial expression recognition. The accurate detection of facial landmarks improves the localization of the salient patches on face images. This paper proposes a novel framework for expression recognition by using appearance features of selected facial patches. A few prominent facial patches, depending on the position of facial landmarks, are extracted which are active during emotion elicitation. These active patches are further processed to obtain the salient patches which contain discriminative features for classification of each pair of expressions, thereby selecting different facial patches as salient for different pair of expression classes. One-against-one classification method is adopted using these features. In addition, an automated learning-free facial landmark detection technique has been proposed, which achieves similar performances as that of other state-of-art landmark detection methods, yet requires significantly less execution time. The proposed method is found to perform well consistently in different resolutions, hence, providing a solution for expression recognition in low resolution images. Experiments on CK+ and JAFFE facial expression databases show the effectiveness of the proposed system.
Facial expressions are one of the most powerful, natural and immediate means for human being to communicate their emotions and intensions. Recognition of facial expression has many applications including human-computer interaction, cognitive science, human emotion analysis, personality development etc. In this paper, we propose a new method for the recognition of facial expressions from single image frame that uses combination of appearance and geometric features with support vector machines classification. In general, appearance features for the recognition of facial expressions are computed by dividing face region into regular grid (holistic representation). But, in this paper we extracted region specific appearance features by dividing the whole face region into domain specific local regions. Geometric features are also extracted from corresponding domain specific regions. In addition, important local regions are determined by using incremental search approach which results in the reduction of feature dimension and improvement in recognition accuracy. The results of facial expressions recognition using features from domain specific regions are also compared with the results obtained using holistic representation. The performance of the proposed facial expression recognition system has been validated on publicly available extended Cohn-Kanade (CK+) facial expression data sets.
Facial expression recognition is a challenging task due to two major problems: the presence of inter-subject variations in facial expression recognition dataset and impure expressions posed by human subjects. In this paper we present a novel Human-to-Animation conditional Generative Adversarial Network (HA-GAN) to overcome these two problems by using many (human faces) to one (animated face) mapping. Specifically, for any given input human expression image, our HA-GAN transfers the expression information from the input image to a fixed animated identity. Stylized animated characters from the Facial Expression Research Group-Database (FERGDB) are used for the generation of fixed identity. By learning this many-to-one identity mapping function using our proposed HA-GAN, the effect of inter-subject variations can be reduced in Facial Expression Recognition(FER). We also argue that the expressions in the generated animated images are pure expressions and since FER is performed on these generated images, the performance of facial expression recognition is improved. Our initial experimental results on the state-of-the-art datasets show that facial expression recognition carried out on the generated animated images using our HA-GAN framework outperforms the baseline deep neural network and produces comparable or even better results than the state-of-the-art methods for facial expression recognition.
We introduce a deep convolutional neural networks (CNN) architecture to classify facial attributes and recognize face images simultaneously via a shared learning paradigm to improve the accuracy for facial attribute prediction and face recognition performance. In this method, we use facial attributes as an auxiliary source of information to assist CNN features extracted from the face images to improve the face recognition performance. Specifically, we use a shared CNN architecture that jointly predicts facial attributes and recognize face images simultaneously via a shared learning parameters, and then we use facial attribute features an an auxiliary source of information concatenated by face features to increase the discrimination of the CNN for face recognition. This process assists the CNN classifier to better recognize face images. The experimental results show that our model increases both the face recognition and facial attribute prediction performance, especially for the identity attributes such as gender and race. We evaluated our method on several standard datasets labeled by identities and face attributes and the results show that the proposed method outperforms state-of-the-art face recognition models.
The recent research of facial expression recognition has made a lot of progress due to the development of deep learning technologies, but some typical challenging problems such as the variety of rich facial expressions and poses are still not resolved. To solve these problems, we develop a new Facial Expression Recognition (FER) framework by involving the facial poses into our image synthesizing and classification process. There are two major novelties in this work. First, we create a new facial expression dataset of more than 200k images with 119 persons, 4 poses and 54 expressions. To our knowledge this is the first dataset to label faces with subtle emotion changes for expression recognition purpose. It is also the first dataset that is large enough to validate the FER task on unbalanced poses, expressions, and zero-shot subject IDs. Second, we propose a facial pose generative adversarial network (FaPE-GAN) to synthesize new facial expression images to augment the data set for training purpose, and then learn a LightCNN based Fa-Net model for expression classification. Finally, we advocate four novel learning tasks on this dataset. The experimental results well validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Recently, deep learning based facial expression recognition (FER) methods have attracted considerable attention and they usually require large-scale labelled training data. Nonetheless, the publicly available facial expression databases typically contain a small amount of labelled data. In this paper, to overcome the above issue, we propose a novel joint deep learning of facial expression synthesis and recognition method for effective FER. More specifically, the proposed method involves a two-stage learning procedure. Firstly, a facial expression synthesis generative adversarial network (FESGAN) is pre-trained to generate facial images with different facial expressions. To increase the diversity of the training images, FESGAN is elaborately designed to generate images with new identities from a prior distribution. Secondly, an expression recognition network is jointly learned with the pre-trained FESGAN in a unified framework. In particular, the classification loss computed from the recognition network is used to simultaneously optimize the performance of both the recognition network and the generator of FESGAN. Moreover, in order to alleviate the problem of data bias between the real images and the synthetic images, we propose an intra-class loss with a novel real data-guided back-propagation (RDBP) algorithm to reduce the intra-class variations of images from the same class, which can significantly improve the final performance. Extensive experimental results on public facial expression databases demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method compared with several state-of-the-art FER methods.
In the past years, face recognition technologies have shown impressive recognition performance, mainly due to recent developments in deep convolutional neural networks. Notwithstanding those improvements, several challenges which affect the performance of face recognition systems remain. In this work, we investigate the impact that facial tattoos and paintings have on current face recognition systems. To this end, we first collected an appropriate database containing image-pairs of individuals with and without facial tattoos or paintings. The assembled database was used to evaluate how facial tattoos and paintings affect the detection, quality estimation, as well as the feature extraction and comparison modules of a face recognition system. The impact on these modules was evaluated using state-of-the-art open-source and commercial systems. The obtained results show that facial tattoos and paintings affect all the tested modules, especially for images where a large area of the face is covered with tattoos or paintings. Our work is an initial case-study and indicates a need to design algorithms which are robust to the visual changes caused by facial tattoos and paintings.
Recognition of human emotions from the imaging templates is useful in a wide variety of human-computer interaction and intelligent systems applications. However, the automatic recognition of facial expressions using image template matching techniques suffer from the natural variability with facial features and recording conditions. In spite of the progress achieved in facial emotion recognition in recent years, the effective and computationally simple feature selection and classification technique for emotion recognition is still an open problem. In this paper, we propose an efficient and straightforward facial emotion recognition algorithm to reduce the problem of inter-class pixel mismatch during classification. The proposed method includes the application of pixel normalization to remove intensity offsets followed-up with a Min-Max metric in a nearest neighbor classifier that is capable of suppressing feature outliers. The results indicate an improvement of recognition performance from 92.85% to 98.57% for the proposed Min-Max classification method when tested on JAFFE database. The proposed emotion recognition technique outperforms the existing template matching methods.
Multi-task learning is an effective learning strategy for deep-learning-based facial expression recognition tasks. However, most existing methods take into limited consideration the feature selection, when transferring information between different tasks, which may lead to task interference when training the multi-task networks. To address this problem, we propose a novel selective feature-sharing method, and establish a multi-task network for facial expression recognition and facial expression synthesis. The proposed method can effectively transfer beneficial features between different tasks, while filtering out useless and harmful information. Moreover, we employ the facial expression synthesis task to enlarge and balance the training dataset to further enhance the generalization ability of the proposed method. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves state-of-the-art performance on those commonly used facial expression recognition benchmarks, which makes it a potential solution to real-world facial expression recognition problems.
With the development of deep learning, the structure of convolution neural network is becoming more and more complex and the performance of object recognition is getting better. However, the classification mechanism of convolution neural networks is still an unsolved core problem. The main problem is that convolution neural networks have too many parameters, which makes it difficult to analyze them. In this paper, we design and train a convolution neural network based on the expression recognition, and explore the classification mechanism of the network. By using the Deconvolution visualization method, the extremum point of the convolution neural network is projected back to the pixel space of the original image, and we qualitatively verify that the trained expression recognition convolution neural network forms a detector for the specific facial action unit. At the same time, we design the distance function to measure the distance between the presence of facial feature unit and the maximal value of the response on the feature map of convolution neural network. The greater the distance, the more sensitive the feature map is to the facial feature unit. By comparing the maximum distance of all facial feature elements in the feature graph, the mapping relationship between facial feature element and convolution neural network feature map is determined. Therefore, we have verified that the convolution neural network has formed a detector for the facial Action unit in the training process to realize the expression recognition.
Facial expressions are important cues to observe human emotions. Facial expression recognition has attracted many researchers for years, but it is still a challenging topic since expression features vary greatly with the head poses, environments, and variations in the different persons involved. In this work, three major steps are involved to improve the performance of micro-facial expression recognition. First, an Adaptive Homomorphic Filtering is used for face detection and rotation rectification processes. Secondly, Micro-facial features were used to extract the appearance variations of a testing image-spatial analysis. The features of motion information are used for expression recognition in a sequence of facial images. An effective Micro-Facial Expression Based Deep-Rooted Learning (MFEDRL) classifier is proposed in this paper to better recognize spontaneous micro-expressions by learning parameters on the optimal features. This proposed method includes two loss functions such as cross entropy loss function and centre loss function. Then the performance of the algorithm will be evaluated using recognition rate and false measures. Simulation results show that the predictive performance of the proposed method outperforms that of the existing classifiers such as Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), Deep Neural Network (DNN), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and k-Nearest Neighbours (KNN) in terms of accuracy and Mean Absolute Error (MAE).
Facial expression is a standout amongst the most imperative features of human emotion recognition. For demonstrating the emotional states facial expressions are utilized by the people. In any case, recognition of facial expressions has persisted a testing and intriguing issue with regards to PC vision. Recognizing the Micro-Facial expression in video sequence is the main objective of the proposed approach. For efficient recognition, the proposed method utilizes the optimal convolution neural network. Here the proposed method considering the input dataset is the CK+ dataset. At first, by means of Adaptive median filtering preprocessing is performed in the input image. From the preprocessed output, the extracted features are Geometric features, Histogram of Oriented Gradients features and Local binary pattern features. The novelty of the proposed method is, with the help of Modified Lion Optimization (MLO) algorithm, the optimal features are selected from the extracted features. In a shorter computational time, it has the benefits of rapidly focalizing and effectively acknowledging with the aim of getting an overall arrangement or idea. Finally, the recognition is done by Convolution Neural network (CNN). Then the performance of the proposed MFEOCNN method is analysed in terms of false measures and recognition accuracy. This kind of emotion recognition is mainly used in medicine, marketing, E-learning, entertainment, law and monitoring. From the simulation, we know that the proposed approach achieves maximum recognition accuracy of 99.2% with minimum Mean Absolute Error (MAE) value. These results are compared with the existing for MicroFacial Expression Based Deep-Rooted Learning (MFEDRL), Convolutional Neural Network with Lion Optimization (CNN+LO) and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) without optimization. The simulation of the proposed method is done in the working platform of MATLAB.
Apparent emotional facial expression recognition has attracted a lot of research attention recently. However, the majority of approaches ignore age differences and train a generic model for all ages. In this work, we study the effect of using different age-groups for training apparent emotional facial expression recognition models. To this end, we study Domain Generalisation in the context of apparent emotional facial expression recognition from facial imagery across different age groups. We first compare several domain generalisation algorithms on the basis of out-of-domain-generalisation, and observe that the Class-Conditional Domain-Adversarial Neural Networks (CDANN) algorithm has the best performance. We then study the effect of variety and number of age-groups used during training on generalisation to unseen age-groups and observe that an increase in the number of training age-groups tends to increase the apparent emotional facial expression recognition performance on unseen age-groups. We also show that exclusion of an age-group during training tends to affect more the performance of the neighbouring age groups.
For image recognition, an extensive number of methods have been proposed to overcome the high-dimensionality problem of feature vectors being used. These methods vary from unsupervised to supervised, and from statistics to graph-theory based. In this paper, the most popular and the state-of-the-art methods for dimensionality reduction are firstly reviewed, and then a new and more efficient manifold-learning method, named Soft Locality Preserving Map (SLPM), is presented. Furthermore, feature generation and sample selection are proposed to achieve better manifold learning. SLPM is a graph-based subspace-learning method, with the use of k-neighbourhood information and the class information. The key feature of SLPM is that it aims to control the level of spread of the different classes, because the spread of the classes in the underlying manifold is closely connected to the generalizability of the learned subspace. Our proposed manifold-learning method can be applied to various pattern recognition applications, and we evaluate its performances on facial expression recognition. Experiments on databases, such as the Bahcesehir University Multilingual Affective Face Database (BAUM-2), the Extended Cohn-Kanade (CK+) Database, the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database, and the Taiwanese Facial Expression Image Database (TFEID), show that SLPM can effectively reduce the dimensionality of the feature vectors and enhance the discriminative power of the extracted features for expression recognition. Furthermore, the proposed feature-generation method can improve the generalizability of the underlying manifolds for facial expression recognition.