Detecting objects in low-light scenarios presents a persistent challenge, as detectors trained on well-lit data exhibit significant performance degradation on low-light data due to the low visibility. Previous methods mitigate this issue by investigating image enhancement or object detection techniques using low-light image datasets. However, the progress is impeded by the inherent difficulties associated with collecting and annotating low-light images. To address this challenge, we propose to boost low-light object detection with zero-shot day-night domain adaptation, which aims to generalize a detector from well-lit scenarios to low-light ones without requiring real low-light data. We first design a reflectance representation learning module to learn Retinex-based illumination invariance in images with a carefully designed illumination invariance reinforcement strategy. Next, an interchange-redecomposition-coherence procedure is introduced to improve over the vanilla Retinex image decomposition process by performing two sequential image decompositions and introducing a redecomposition cohering loss. Extensive experiments on ExDark, DARK FACE and CODaN datasets show strong low-light generalizability of our method.
Domain shift across crowd data severely hinders crowd counting models to generalize to unseen scenarios. Although domain adaptive crowd counting approaches close this gap to a certain extent, they are still dependent on the target domain data to adapt (e.g. finetune) their models to the specific domain. In this paper, we aim to train a model based on a single source domain which can generalize well on any unseen domain. This falls into the realm of domain generalization that remains unexplored in crowd counting. We first introduce a dynamic sub-domain division scheme which divides the source domain into multiple sub-domains such that we can initiate a meta-learning framework for domain generalization. The sub-domain division is dynamically refined during the meta-learning. Next, in order to disentangle domain-invariant information from domain-specific information in image features, we design the domain-invariant and -specific crowd memory modules to re-encode image features. Two types of losses, i.e. feature reconstruction and orthogonal losses, are devised to enable this disentanglement. Extensive experiments on several standard crowd counting benchmarks i.e. SHA, SHB, QNRF, and NWPU, show the strong generalizability of our method.
Perspective distortions and crowd variations make crowd counting a challenging task in computer vision. To tackle it, many previous works have used multi-scale architecture in deep neural networks (DNNs). Multi-scale branches can be either directly merged (e.g. by concatenation) or merged through the guidance of proxies (e.g. attentions) in the DNNs. Despite their prevalence, these combination methods are not sophisticated enough to deal with the per-pixel performance discrepancy over multi-scale density maps. In this work, we redesign the multi-scale neural network by introducing a hierarchical mixture of density experts, which hierarchically merges multi-scale density maps for crowd counting. Within the hierarchical structure, an expert competition and collaboration scheme is presented to encourage contributions from all scales; pixel-wise soft gating nets are introduced to provide pixel-wise soft weights for scale combinations in different hierarchies. The network is optimized using both the crowd density map and the local counting map, where the latter is obtained by local integration on the former. Optimizing both can be problematic because of their potential conflicts. We introduce a new relative local counting loss based on relative count differences among hard-predicted local regions in an image, which proves to be complementary to the conventional absolute error loss on the density map. Experiments show that our method achieves the state-of-the-art performance on five public datasets, i.e. ShanghaiTech, UCF_CC_50, JHU-CROWD++, NWPU-Crowd and Trancos.