The next era of program understanding is being propelled by the use of machine learning to solve software problems. Recent studies have shown surprising results of source code learning, which applies deep neural networks (DNNs) to various critical software tasks, e.g., bug detection and clone detection. This success can be greatly attributed to the utilization of massive high-quality training data, and in practice, data augmentation, which is a technique used to produce additional training data, has been widely adopted in various domains, such as computer vision. However, in source code learning, data augmentation has not been extensively studied, and existing practice is limited to simple syntax-preserved methods, such as code refactoring. Essentially, source code is often represented in two ways, namely, sequentially as text data and structurally as graph data, when it is used as training data in source code learning. Inspired by these analogy relations, we take an early step to investigate whether data augmentation methods that are originally used for text and graphs are effective in improving the training quality of source code learning. To that end, we first collect and categorize data augmentation methods in the literature. Second, we conduct a comprehensive empirical study on four critical tasks and 11 DNN architectures to explore the effectiveness of 12 data augmentation methods (including code refactoring and 11 other methods for text and graph data). Our results identify the data augmentation methods that can produce more accurate and robust models for source code learning, including those based on mixup (e.g., SenMixup for texts and Manifold-Mixup for graphs), and those that slightly break the syntax of source code (e.g., random swap and random deletion for texts).