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Abstract:Variational regularisation is the primary method for solving inverse problems, and recently there has been considerable work leveraging deeply learned regularisation for enhanced performance. However, few results exist addressing the convergence of such regularisation, particularly within the context of critical points as opposed to global minima. In this paper, we present a generalised formulation of convergent regularisation in terms of critical points, and show that this is achieved by a class of weakly convex regularisers. We prove convergence of the primal-dual hybrid gradient method for the associated variational problem, and, given a Kurdyka-Lojasiewicz condition, an $\mathcal{O}(\log{k}/k)$ ergodic convergence rate. Finally, applying this theory to learned regularisation, we prove universal approximation for input weakly convex neural networks (IWCNN), and show empirically that IWCNNs can lead to improved performance of learned adversarial regularisers for computed tomography (CT) reconstruction.

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Abstract:An emerging new paradigm for solving inverse problems is via the use of deep learning to learn a regularizer from data. This leads to high-quality results, but often at the cost of provable guarantees. In this work, we show how well-posedness and convergent regularization arises within the convex-nonconvex (CNC) framework for inverse problems. We introduce a novel input weakly convex neural network (IWCNN) construction to adapt the method of learned adversarial regularization to the CNC framework. Empirically we show that our method overcomes numerical issues of previous adversarial methods.

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Abstract:Stable Diffusion revolutionised image creation from descriptive text. GPT-2, GPT-3(.5) and GPT-4 demonstrated astonishing performance across a variety of language tasks. ChatGPT introduced such language models to the general public. It is now clear that large language models (LLMs) are here to stay, and will bring about drastic change in the whole ecosystem of online text and images. In this paper we consider what the future might hold. What will happen to GPT-{n} once LLMs contribute much of the language found online? We find that use of model-generated content in training causes irreversible defects in the resulting models, where tails of the original content distribution disappear. We refer to this effect as Model Collapse and show that it can occur in Variational Autoencoders, Gaussian Mixture Models and LLMs. We build theoretical intuition behind the phenomenon and portray its ubiquity amongst all learned generative models. We demonstrate that it has to be taken seriously if we are to sustain the benefits of training from large-scale data scraped from the web. Indeed, the value of data collected about genuine human interactions with systems will be increasingly valuable in the presence of content generated by LLMs in data crawled from the Internet.

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Authors:Ilia Shumailov, Zakhar Shumaylov, Dmitry Kazhdan, Yiren Zhao, Nicolas Papernot, Murat A. Erdogdu, Ross Anderson

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Abstract:Machine learning is vulnerable to a wide variety of different attacks. It is now well understood that by changing the underlying data distribution, an adversary can poison the model trained with it or introduce backdoors. In this paper we present a novel class of training-time attacks that require no changes to the underlying model dataset or architecture, but instead only change the order in which data are supplied to the model. In particular, an attacker can disrupt the integrity and availability of a model by simply reordering training batches, with no knowledge about either the model or the dataset. Indeed, the attacks presented here are not specific to the model or dataset, but rather target the stochastic nature of modern learning procedures. We extensively evaluate our attacks to find that the adversary can disrupt model training and even introduce backdoors. For integrity we find that the attacker can either stop the model from learning, or poison it to learn behaviours specified by the attacker. For availability we find that a single adversarially-ordered epoch can be enough to slow down model learning, or even to reset all of the learning progress. Such attacks have a long-term impact in that they decrease model performance hundreds of epochs after the attack took place. Reordering is a very powerful adversarial paradigm in that it removes the assumption that an adversary must inject adversarial data points or perturbations to perform training-time attacks. It reminds us that stochastic gradient descent relies on the assumption that data are sampled at random. If this randomness is compromised, then all bets are off.

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Authors:Subhadip Mukherjee, Sören Dittmer, Zakhar Shumaylov, Sebastian Lunz, Ozan Öktem, Carola-Bibiane Schönlieb

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Abstract:We consider the variational reconstruction framework for inverse problems and propose to learn a data-adaptive input-convex neural network (ICNN) as the regularization functional. The ICNN-based convex regularizer is trained adversarially to discern ground-truth images from unregularized reconstructions. Convexity of the regularizer is attractive since (i) one can establish analytical convergence guarantees for the corresponding variational reconstruction problem and (ii) devise efficient and provable algorithms for reconstruction. In particular, we show that the optimal solution to the variational problem converges to the ground-truth if the penalty parameter decays sub-linearly with respect to the norm of the noise. Further, we prove the existence of a subgradient-based algorithm that leads to monotonically decreasing error in the parameter space with iterations. To demonstrate the performance of our approach for solving inverse problems, we consider the tasks of deblurring natural images and reconstructing images in computed tomography (CT), and show that the proposed convex regularizer is at least competitive with and sometimes superior to state-of-the-art data-driven techniques for inverse problems.

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