Unsupervised out-of-distribution detection (OOD) seeks to identify out-of-domain data by learning only from unlabeled in-domain data. We present a novel approach for this task - Lift, Map, Detect (LMD) - that leverages recent advancement in diffusion models. Diffusion models are one type of generative models. At their core, they learn an iterative denoising process that gradually maps a noisy image closer to their training manifolds. LMD leverages this intuition for OOD detection. Specifically, LMD lifts an image off its original manifold by corrupting it, and maps it towards the in-domain manifold with a diffusion model. For an out-of-domain image, the mapped image would have a large distance away from its original manifold, and LMD would identify it as OOD accordingly. We show through extensive experiments that LMD achieves competitive performance across a broad variety of datasets.
Existing measures and representations for trajectories have two longstanding fundamental shortcomings, i.e., they are computationally expensive and they can not guarantee the `uniqueness' property of a distance function: dist(X,Y) = 0 if and only if X=Y, where $X$ and $Y$ are two trajectories. This paper proposes a simple yet powerful way to represent trajectories and measure the similarity between two trajectories using a distributional kernel to address these shortcomings. It is a principled approach based on kernel mean embedding which has a strong theoretical underpinning. It has three distinctive features in comparison with existing approaches. (1) A distributional kernel is used for the very first time for trajectory representation and similarity measurement. (2) It does not rely on point-to-point distances which are used in most existing distances for trajectories. (3) It requires no learning, unlike existing learning and deep learning approaches. We show the generality of this new approach in three applications: (a) trajectory anomaly detection, (b) anomalous sub-trajectory detection, and (c) trajectory pattern mining. We identify that the distributional kernel has (i) a unique data-dependent property and the above uniqueness property which are the key factors that lead to its superior task-specific performance; and (ii) runtime orders of magnitude faster than existing distance measures.