Video anomaly detection (VAD) with weak supervision has achieved remarkable performance in utilizing video-level labels to discriminate whether a video frame is normal or abnormal. However, current approaches are inherently limited to a closed-set setting and may struggle in open-world applications where there can be anomaly categories in the test data unseen during training. A few recent studies attempt to tackle a more realistic setting, open-set VAD, which aims to detect unseen anomalies given seen anomalies and normal videos. However, such a setting focuses on predicting frame anomaly scores, having no ability to recognize the specific categories of anomalies, despite the fact that this ability is essential for building more informed video surveillance systems. This paper takes a step further and explores open-vocabulary video anomaly detection (OVVAD), in which we aim to leverage pre-trained large models to detect and categorize seen and unseen anomalies. To this end, we propose a model that decouples OVVAD into two mutually complementary tasks -- class-agnostic detection and class-specific classification -- and jointly optimizes both tasks. Particularly, we devise a semantic knowledge injection module to introduce semantic knowledge from large language models for the detection task, and design a novel anomaly synthesis module to generate pseudo unseen anomaly videos with the help of large vision generation models for the classification task. These semantic knowledge and synthesis anomalies substantially extend our model's capability in detecting and categorizing a variety of seen and unseen anomalies. Extensive experiments on three widely-used benchmarks demonstrate our model achieves state-of-the-art performance on OVVAD task.
The recent contrastive language-image pre-training (CLIP) model has shown great success in a wide range of image-level tasks, revealing remarkable ability for learning powerful visual representations with rich semantics. An open and worthwhile problem is efficiently adapting such a strong model to the video domain and designing a robust video anomaly detector. In this work, we propose VadCLIP, a new paradigm for weakly supervised video anomaly detection (WSVAD) by leveraging the frozen CLIP model directly without any pre-training and fine-tuning process. Unlike current works that directly feed extracted features into the weakly supervised classifier for frame-level binary classification, VadCLIP makes full use of fine-grained associations between vision and language on the strength of CLIP and involves dual branch. One branch simply utilizes visual features for coarse-grained binary classification, while the other fully leverages the fine-grained language-image alignment. With the benefit of dual branch, VadCLIP achieves both coarse-grained and fine-grained video anomaly detection by transferring pre-trained knowledge from CLIP to WSVAD task. We conduct extensive experiments on two commonly-used benchmarks, demonstrating that VadCLIP achieves the best performance on both coarse-grained and fine-grained WSVAD, surpassing the state-of-the-art methods by a large margin. Specifically, VadCLIP achieves 84.51% AP and 88.02% AUC on XD-Violence and UCF-Crime, respectively. Code and features will be released to facilitate future VAD research.