Earth observing satellites carrying multi-spectral sensors are widely used to monitor the physical and biological states of the atmosphere, land, and oceans. These satellites have different vantage points above the earth and different spectral imaging bands resulting in inconsistent imagery from one to another. This presents challenges in building downstream applications. What if we could generate synthetic bands for existing satellites from the union of all domains? We tackle the problem of generating synthetic spectral imagery for multispectral sensors as an unsupervised image-to-image translation problem with partial labels and introduce a novel shared spectral reconstruction loss. Simulated experiments performed by dropping one or more spectral bands show that cross-domain reconstruction outperforms measurements obtained from a second vantage point. On a downstream cloud detection task, we show that generating synthetic bands with our model improves segmentation performance beyond our baseline. Our proposed approach enables synchronization of multispectral data and provides a basis for more homogeneous remote sensing datasets.
New generation geostationary satellites make solar reflectance observations available at a continental scale with unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution and spectral range. Generating quality land monitoring products requires correction of the effects of atmospheric scattering and absorption, which vary in time and space according to geometry and atmospheric composition. Many atmospheric radiative transfer models, including that of Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC), are too computationally complex to be run in real time, and rely on precomputed look-up tables. Additionally, uncertainty in measurements and models for remote sensing receives insufficient attention, in part due to the difficulty of obtaining sufficient ground measurements. In this paper, we present an adaptation of Bayesian Deep Learning (BDL) to emulation of the MAIAC atmospheric correction algorithm. Emulation approaches learn a statistical model as an efficient approximation of a physical model, while machine learning methods have demonstrated performance in extracting spatial features and learning complex, nonlinear mappings. We demonstrate stable surface reflectance retrieval by emulation (R2 between MAIAC and emulator SR are 0.63, 0.75, 0.86, 0.84, 0.95, and 0.91 for Blue, Green, Red, NIR, SWIR1, and SWIR2 bands, respectively), accurate cloud detection (86\%), and well-calibrated, geolocated uncertainty estimates. Our results support BDL-based emulation as an accurate and efficient (up to 6x speedup) method for approximation atmospheric correction, where built-in uncertainty estimates stand to open new opportunities for model assessment and support informed use of SR-derived quantities in multiple domains.