The ATLAS experiment measures the properties of particles that are products of proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The ATLAS detector will undergo a major upgrade before the high luminosity phase of the LHC. The ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter measures the energy of particles interacting electromagnetically in the detector. The readout electronics of this calorimeter will be replaced during the aforementioned ATLAS upgrade. The new electronic boards will be based on state-of-the-art field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) from Intel allowing the implementation of neural networks embedded in firmware. Neural networks have been shown to outperform the current optimal filtering algorithms used to compute the energy deposited in the calorimeter. This article presents the implementation of a recurrent neural network (RNN) allowing the reconstruction of the energy deposited in the calorimeter on Stratix 10 FPGAs. The implementation in high level synthesis (HLS) language allowed fast prototyping but fell short of meeting the stringent requirements in terms of resource usage and latency. Further optimisations in Very High-Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) allowed fulfilment of the requirements of processing 384 channels per FPGA with a latency smaller than 125 ns.
In this community review report, we discuss applications and techniques for fast machine learning (ML) in science -- the concept of integrating power ML methods into the real-time experimental data processing loop to accelerate scientific discovery. The material for the report builds on two workshops held by the Fast ML for Science community and covers three main areas: applications for fast ML across a number of scientific domains; techniques for training and implementing performant and resource-efficient ML algorithms; and computing architectures, platforms, and technologies for deploying these algorithms. We also present overlapping challenges across the multiple scientific domains where common solutions can be found. This community report is intended to give plenty of examples and inspiration for scientific discovery through integrated and accelerated ML solutions. This is followed by a high-level overview and organization of technical advances, including an abundance of pointers to source material, which can enable these breakthroughs.