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Abstract:In this work, we present the novel mathematical framework of latent dynamics models (LDMs) for reduced order modeling of parameterized nonlinear time-dependent PDEs. Our framework casts this latter task as a nonlinear dimensionality reduction problem, while constraining the latent state to evolve accordingly to an (unknown) dynamical system. A time-continuous setting is employed to derive error and stability estimates for the LDM approximation of the full order model (FOM) solution. We analyze the impact of using an explicit Runge-Kutta scheme in the time-discrete setting, resulting in the $\Delta\text{LDM}$ formulation, and further explore the learnable setting, $\Delta\text{LDM}_\theta$, where deep neural networks approximate the discrete LDM components, while providing a bounded approximation error with respect to the FOM. Moreover, we extend the concept of parameterized Neural ODE - recently proposed as a possible way to build data-driven dynamical systems with varying input parameters - to be a convolutional architecture, where the input parameters information is injected by means of an affine modulation mechanism, while designing a convolutional autoencoder neural network able to retain spatial-coherence, thus enhancing interpretability at the latent level. Numerical experiments, including the Burgers' and the advection-reaction-diffusion equations, demonstrate the framework's ability to obtain, in a multi-query context, a time-continuous approximation of the FOM solution, thus being able to query the LDM approximation at any given time instance while retaining a prescribed level of accuracy. Our findings highlight the remarkable potential of the proposed LDMs, representing a mathematically rigorous framework to enhance the accuracy and approximation capabilities of reduced order modeling for time-dependent parameterized PDEs.

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Abstract:The coupling of Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and deep learning-based ROMs (DL-ROMs) has proved to be a successful strategy to construct non-intrusive, highly accurate, surrogates for the real time solution of parametric nonlinear time-dependent PDEs. Inexpensive to evaluate, POD-DL-ROMs are also relatively fast to train, thanks to their limited complexity. However, POD-DL-ROMs account for the physical laws governing the problem at hand only through the training data, that are usually obtained through a full order model (FOM) relying on a high-fidelity discretization of the underlying equations. Moreover, the accuracy of POD-DL-ROMs strongly depends on the amount of available data. In this paper, we consider a major extension of POD-DL-ROMs by enforcing the fulfillment of the governing physical laws in the training process -- that is, by making them physics-informed -- to compensate for possible scarce and/or unavailable data and improve the overall reliability. To do that, we first complement POD-DL-ROMs with a trunk net architecture, endowing them with the ability to compute the problem's solution at every point in the spatial domain, and ultimately enabling a seamless computation of the physics-based loss by means of the strong continuous formulation. Then, we introduce an efficient training strategy that limits the notorious computational burden entailed by a physics-informed training phase. In particular, we take advantage of the few available data to develop a low-cost pre-training procedure; then, we fine-tune the architecture in order to further improve the prediction reliability. Accuracy and efficiency of the resulting pre-trained physics-informed DL-ROMs (PTPI-DL-ROMs) are then assessed on a set of test cases ranging from non-affinely parametrized advection-diffusion-reaction equations, to nonlinear problems like the Navier-Stokes equations for fluid flows.

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Abstract:Mesh-based simulations play a key role when modeling complex physical systems that, in many disciplines across science and engineering, require the solution of parametrized time-dependent nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). In this context, full order models (FOMs), such as those relying on the finite element method, can reach high levels of accuracy, however often yielding intensive simulations to run. For this reason, surrogate models are developed to replace computationally expensive solvers with more efficient ones, which can strike favorable trade-offs between accuracy and efficiency. This work explores the potential usage of graph neural networks (GNNs) for the simulation of time-dependent PDEs in the presence of geometrical variability. In particular, we propose a systematic strategy to build surrogate models based on a data-driven time-stepping scheme where a GNN architecture is used to efficiently evolve the system. With respect to the majority of surrogate models, the proposed approach stands out for its ability of tackling problems with parameter dependent spatial domains, while simultaneously generalizing to different geometries and mesh resolutions. We assess the effectiveness of the proposed approach through a series of numerical experiments, involving both two- and three-dimensional problems, showing that GNNs can provide a valid alternative to traditional surrogate models in terms of computational efficiency and generalization to new scenarios. We also assess, from a numerical standpoint, the importance of using GNNs, rather than classical dense deep neural networks, for the proposed framework.

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Abstract:Highly accurate simulations of complex phenomena governed by partial differential equations (PDEs) typically require intrusive methods and entail expensive computational costs, which might become prohibitive when approximating steady-state solutions of PDEs for multiple combinations of control parameters and initial conditions. Therefore, constructing efficient reduced order models (ROMs) that enable accurate but fast predictions, while retaining the dynamical characteristics of the physical phenomenon as parameters vary, is of paramount importance. In this work, a data-driven, non-intrusive framework which combines ROM construction with reduced dynamics identification, is presented. Starting from a limited amount of full order solutions, the proposed approach leverages autoencoder neural networks with parametric sparse identification of nonlinear dynamics (SINDy) to construct a low-dimensional dynamical model which can be queried to efficiently compute full-time solutions at new parameter instances, as well as directly fed to continuation algorithms. These latter aim at tracking the evolution of periodic steady-state responses as functions of system parameters, avoiding the computation of the transient phase, and allowing to detect instabilities and bifurcations. Featuring an explicit and parametrized modeling of the reduced dynamics, the proposed data-driven framework presents remarkable capabilities to generalize both with respect to time and parameters. Applications to structural mechanics and fluid dynamics problems illustrate the effectiveness and accuracy of the method.

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Abstract:Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems are complex structures, often involving nonlinearites of geometric and multiphysics nature, that are used as sensors and actuators in countless applications. Starting from full-order representations, we apply deep learning techniques to generate accurate, efficient and real-time reduced order models to be used as virtual twin for the simulation and optimization of higher-level complex systems. We extensively test the reliability of the proposed procedures on micromirrors, arches and gyroscopes, also displaying intricate dynamical evolutions like internal resonances. In particular, we discuss the accuracy of the deep learning technique and its ability to replicate and converge to the invariant manifolds predicted using the recently developed direct parametrization approach that allows extracting the nonlinear normal modes of large finite element models. Finally, by addressing an electromechanical gyroscope, we show that the non-intrusive deep learning approach generalizes easily to complex multiphysics problems

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Abstract:To speed-up the solution to parametrized differential problems, reduced order models (ROMs) have been developed over the years, including projection-based ROMs such as the reduced-basis (RB) method, deep learning-based ROMs, as well as surrogate models obtained via a machine learning approach. Thanks to its physics-based structure, ensured by the use of a Galerkin projection of the full order model (FOM) onto a linear low-dimensional subspace, RB methods yield approximations that fulfill the physical problem at hand. However, to make the assembling of a ROM independent of the FOM dimension, intrusive and expensive hyper-reduction stages are usually required, such as the discrete empirical interpolation method (DEIM), thus making this strategy less feasible for problems characterized by (high-order polynomial or nonpolynomial) nonlinearities. To overcome this bottleneck, we propose a novel strategy for learning nonlinear ROM operators using deep neural networks (DNNs). The resulting hyper-reduced order model enhanced by deep neural networks, to which we refer to as Deep-HyROMnet, is then a physics-based model, still relying on the RB method approach, however employing a DNN architecture to approximate reduced residual vectors and Jacobian matrices once a Galerkin projection has been performed. Numerical results dealing with fast simulations in nonlinear structural mechanics show that Deep-HyROMnets are orders of magnitude faster than POD-Galerkin-DEIM ROMs, keeping the same level of accuracy.

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Abstract:Deep learning-based reduced order models (DL-ROMs) have been recently proposed to overcome common limitations shared by conventional ROMs - built, e.g., exclusively through proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) - when applied to nonlinear time-dependent parametrized PDEs. In particular, POD-DL-ROMs can achieve extreme efficiency in the training stage and faster than real-time performances at testing, thanks to a prior dimensionality reduction through POD and a DL-based prediction framework. Nonetheless, they share with conventional ROMs poor performances regarding time extrapolation tasks. This work aims at taking a further step towards the use of DL algorithms for the efficient numerical approximation of parametrized PDEs by introducing the $\mu t$-POD-LSTM-ROM framework. This novel technique extends the POD-DL-ROM framework by adding a two-fold architecture taking advantage of long short-term memory (LSTM) cells, ultimately allowing long-term prediction of complex systems' evolution, with respect to the training window, for unseen input parameter values. Numerical results show that this recurrent architecture enables the extrapolation for time windows up to 15 times larger than the training time domain, and achieves better testing time performances with respect to the already lightning-fast POD-DL-ROMs.

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Abstract:Simulating fluid flows in different virtual scenarios is of key importance in engineering applications. However, high-fidelity, full-order models relying, e.g., on the finite element method, are unaffordable whenever fluid flows must be simulated in almost real-time. Reduced order models (ROMs) relying, e.g., on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) provide reliable approximations to parameter-dependent fluid dynamics problems in rapid times. However, they might require expensive hyper-reduction strategies for handling parameterized nonlinear terms, and enriched reduced spaces (or Petrov-Galerkin projections) if a mixed velocity-pressure formulation is considered, possibly hampering the evaluation of reliable solutions in real-time. Dealing with fluid-structure interactions entails even higher difficulties. The proposed deep learning (DL)-based ROMs overcome all these limitations by learning in a non-intrusive way both the nonlinear trial manifold and the reduced dynamics. To do so, they rely on deep neural networks, after performing a former dimensionality reduction through POD enhancing their training times substantially. The resulting POD-DL-ROMs are shown to provide accurate results in almost real-time for the flow around a cylinder benchmark, the fluid-structure interaction between an elastic beam attached to a fixed, rigid block and a laminar incompressible flow, and the blood flow in a cerebral aneurysm.

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Abstract:Deep learning-based reduced order models (DL-ROMs) have been recently proposed to overcome common limitations shared by conventional reduced order models (ROMs) - built, e.g., through proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) - when applied to nonlinear time-dependent parametrized partial differential equations (PDEs). These might be related to (i) the need to deal with projections onto high dimensional linear approximating trial manifolds, (ii) expensive hyper-reduction strategies, or (iii) the intrinsic difficulty to handle physical complexity with a linear superimposition of modes. All these aspects are avoided when employing DL-ROMs, which learn in a non-intrusive way both the nonlinear trial manifold and the reduced dynamics, by relying on deep (e.g., feedforward, convolutional, autoencoder) neural networks. Although extremely efficient at testing time, when evaluating the PDE solution for any new testing-parameter instance, DL-ROMs require an expensive training stage, because of the extremely large number of network parameters to be estimated. In this paper we propose a possible way to avoid an expensive training stage of DL-ROMs, by (i) performing a prior dimensionality reduction through POD, and (ii) relying on a multi-fidelity pretraining stage, where different physical models can be efficiently combined. The proposed POD-DL-ROM is tested on several (both scalar and vector, linear and nonlinear) time-dependent parametrized PDEs (such as, e.g., linear advection-diffusion-reaction, nonlinear diffusion-reaction, nonlinear elastodynamics, and Navier-Stokes equations) to show the generality of this approach and its remarkable computational savings.

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Abstract:Predicting the electrical behavior of the heart, from the cellular scale to the tissue level, relies on the formulation and numerical approximation of coupled nonlinear dynamical systems. These systems describe the cardiac action potential, that is the polarization/depolarization cycle occurring at every heart beat that models the time evolution of the electrical potential across the cell membrane, as well as a set of ionic variables. Multiple solutions of these systems, corresponding to different model inputs, are required to evaluate outputs of clinical interest, such as activation maps and action potential duration. More importantly, these models feature coherent structures that propagate over time, such as wavefronts. These systems can hardly be reduced to lower dimensional problems by conventional reduced order models (ROMs) such as, e.g., the reduced basis (RB) method. This is primarily due to the low regularity of the solution manifold (with respect to the problem parameters) as well as to the nonlinear nature of the input-output maps that we intend to reconstruct numerically. To overcome this difficulty, in this paper we propose a new, nonlinear approach which exploits deep learning (DL) algorithms to obtain accurate and efficient ROMs, whose dimensionality matches the number of system parameters. Our DL approach combines deep feedforward neural networks (NNs) and convolutional autoencoders (AEs). We show that the proposed DL-ROM framework can efficiently provide solutions to parametrized electrophysiology problems, thus enabling multi-scenario analysis in pathological cases. We investigate three challenging test cases in cardiac electrophysiology and prove that DL-ROM outperforms classical projection-based ROMs.

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