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Abstract:Classical model reduction techniques project the governing equations onto a linear subspace of the original state space. More recent data-driven techniques use neural networks to enable nonlinear projections. Whilst those often enable stronger compression, they may have redundant parameters and lead to suboptimal latent dimensionality. To overcome these, we propose a multistep algorithm that induces sparsity in the encoder-decoder networks for effective reduction in the number of parameters and additional compression of the latent space. This algorithm starts with sparsely initialized a network and training it using linearized Bregman iterations. These iterations have been very successful in computer vision and compressed sensing tasks, but have not yet been used for reduced-order modelling. After the training, we further compress the latent space dimensionality by using a form of proper orthogonal decomposition. Last, we use a bias propagation technique to change the induced sparsity into an effective reduction of parameters. We apply this algorithm to three representative PDE models: 1D diffusion, 1D advection, and 2D reaction-diffusion. Compared to conventional training methods like Adam, the proposed method achieves similar accuracy with 30% less parameters and a significantly smaller latent space.

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Abstract:Digital twins require computationally-efficient reduced-order models (ROMs) that can accurately describe complex dynamics of physical assets. However, constructing ROMs from noisy high-dimensional data is challenging. In this work, we propose a data-driven, non-intrusive method that utilizes stochastic variational deep kernel learning (SVDKL) to discover low-dimensional latent spaces from data and a recurrent version of SVDKL for representing and predicting the evolution of latent dynamics. The proposed method is demonstrated with two challenging examples -- a double pendulum and a reaction-diffusion system. Results show that our framework is capable of (i) denoising and reconstructing measurements, (ii) learning compact representations of system states, (iii) predicting system evolution in low-dimensional latent spaces, and (iv) quantifying modeling uncertainties.

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Abstract:One of the pivotal tasks in scientific machine learning is to represent underlying dynamical systems from time series data. Many methods for such dynamics learning explicitly require the derivatives of state data, which are not directly available and can be approximated conventionally by finite differences. However, the discrete approximations of time derivatives may result in a poor estimation when state data are scarce and/or corrupted by noise, thus compromising the predictiveness of the learned dynamical models. To overcome this technical hurdle, we propose a new method that learns nonlinear dynamics through a Bayesian inference of characterizing model parameters. This method leverages a Gaussian process representation of states, and constructs a likelihood function using the correlation between state data and their derivatives, yet prevents explicit evaluations of time derivatives. Through a Bayesian scheme, a probabilistic estimate of the model parameters is given by the posterior distribution, and thus a quantification is facilitated for uncertainties from noisy state data and the learning process. Specifically, we will discuss the applicability of the proposed method to two typical scenarios for dynamical systems: parameter identification and estimation with an affine structure of the system, and nonlinear parametric approximation without prior knowledge.

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Abstract:High-fidelity numerical simulations of partial differential equations (PDEs) given a restricted computational budget can significantly limit the number of parameter configurations considered and/or time window evaluated for modeling a given system. Multi-fidelity surrogate modeling aims to leverage less accurate, lower-fidelity models that are computationally inexpensive in order to enhance predictive accuracy when high-fidelity data are limited or scarce. However, low-fidelity models, while often displaying important qualitative spatio-temporal features, fail to accurately capture the onset of instability and critical transients observed in the high-fidelity models, making them impractical as surrogate models. To address this shortcoming, we present a new data-driven strategy that combines dimensionality reduction with multi-fidelity neural network surrogates. The key idea is to generate a spatial basis by applying the classical proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to high-fidelity solution snapshots, and approximate the dynamics of the reduced states - time-parameter-dependent expansion coefficients of the POD basis - using a multi-fidelity long-short term memory (LSTM) network. By mapping low-fidelity reduced states to their high-fidelity counterpart, the proposed reduced-order surrogate model enables the efficient recovery of full solution fields over time and parameter variations in a non-intrusive manner. The generality and robustness of this method is demonstrated by a collection of parametrized, time-dependent PDE problems where the low-fidelity model can be defined by coarser meshes and/or time stepping, as well as by misspecified physical features. Importantly, the onset of instabilities and transients are well captured by this surrogate modeling technique.

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Abstract:Conventional Gaussian process regression exclusively assumes the existence of noise in the output data of model observations. In many scientific and engineering applications, however, the input locations of observational data may also be compromised with uncertainties owing to modeling assumptions, measurement errors, etc. In this work, we propose a Bayesian method that integrates the variability of input data into Gaussian process regression. Considering two types of observables -- noise-corrupted outputs with fixed inputs and those with prior-distribution-defined uncertain inputs, a posterior distribution is estimated via a Bayesian framework to infer the uncertain data locations. Thereafter, such quantified uncertainties of inputs are incorporated into Gaussian process predictions by means of marginalization. The effectiveness of this new regression technique is demonstrated through several numerical examples, in which a consistently good performance of generalization is observed, while a substantial reduction in the predictive uncertainties is achieved by the Bayesian inference of uncertain inputs.

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Abstract:This work proposes a Stochastic Variational Deep Kernel Learning method for the data-driven discovery of low-dimensional dynamical models from high-dimensional noisy data. The framework is composed of an encoder that compresses high-dimensional measurements into low-dimensional state variables, and a latent dynamical model for the state variables that predicts the system evolution over time. The training of the proposed model is carried out in an unsupervised manner, i.e., not relying on labeled data. Our learning method is evaluated on the motion of a pendulum -- a well studied baseline for nonlinear model identification and control with continuous states and control inputs -- measured via high-dimensional noisy RGB images. Results show that the method can effectively denoise measurements, learn compact state representations and latent dynamical models, as well as identify and quantify modeling uncertainties.

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Abstract:When evaluating quantities of interest that depend on the solutions to differential equations, we inevitably face the trade-off between accuracy and efficiency. Especially for parametrized, time dependent problems in engineering computations, it is often the case that acceptable computational budgets limit the availability of high-fidelity, accurate simulation data. Multi-fidelity surrogate modeling has emerged as an effective strategy to overcome this difficulty. Its key idea is to leverage many low-fidelity simulation data, less accurate but much faster to compute, to improve the approximations with limited high-fidelity data. In this work, we introduce a novel data-driven framework of multi-fidelity surrogate modeling for parametrized, time-dependent problems using long short-term memory (LSTM) networks, to enhance output predictions both for unseen parameter values and forward in time simultaneously - a task known to be particularly challenging for data-driven models. We demonstrate the wide applicability of the proposed approaches in a variety of engineering problems with high- and low-fidelity data generated through fine versus coarse meshes, small versus large time steps, or finite element full-order versus deep learning reduced-order models. Numerical results show that the proposed multi-fidelity LSTM networks not only improve single-fidelity regression significantly, but also outperform the multi-fidelity models based on feed-forward neural networks.

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Authors:Mengwu Guo

Abstract:As a generalization of the work in [Lee et al., 2017], this note briefly discusses when the prior of a neural network output follows a Gaussian process, and how a neural-network-induced Gaussian process is formulated. The posterior mean functions of such a Gaussian process regression lie in the reproducing kernel Hilbert space defined by the neural-network-induced kernel. In the case of two-layer neural networks, the induced Gaussian processes provide an interpretation of the reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces whose union forms a Barron space.

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Abstract:Highly accurate numerical or physical experiments are often time-consuming or expensive to obtain. When time or budget restrictions prohibit the generation of additional data, the amount of available samples may be too limited to provide satisfactory model results. Multi-fidelity methods deal with such problems by incorporating information from other sources, which are ideally well-correlated with the high-fidelity data, but can be obtained at a lower cost. By leveraging correlations between different data sets, multi-fidelity methods often yield superior generalization when compared to models based solely on a small amount of high-fidelity data. In this work, we present the use of artificial neural networks applied to multi-fidelity regression problems. By elaborating a few existing approaches, we propose new neural network architectures for multi-fidelity regression. The introduced models are compared against a traditional multi-fidelity scheme, co-kriging. A collection of artificial benchmarks are presented to measure the performance of the analyzed models. The results show that cross-validation in combination with Bayesian optimization consistently leads to neural network models that outperform the co-kriging scheme. Additionally, we show an application of multi-fidelity regression to an engineering problem. The propagation of a pressure wave into an acoustic horn with parametrized shape and frequency is considered, and the index of reflection intensity is approximated using the multi-fidelity models. A finite element model and a reduced basis model are adopted as the high- and low-fidelity, respectively. It is shown that the multi-fidelity neural network returns outputs that achieve a comparable accuracy to those from the expensive, full-order model, using only very few full-order evaluations combined with a larger amount of inaccurate but cheap evaluations of a reduced order model.

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Abstract:An energy-based a posteriori error bound is proposed for the physics-informed neural network solutions of elasticity problems. An admissible displacement-stress solution pair is obtained from a mixed form of physics-informed neural networks, and the proposed error bound is formulated as the constitutive relation error defined by the solution pair. Such an error estimator provides an upper bound of the global error of neural network discretization. The bounding property, as well as the asymptotic behavior of the physics-informed neural network solutions, are studied in a demonstrating example.

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