The advancement in numerous generative models has a two-fold effect: a simple and easy generation of realistic synthesized images, but also an increased risk of malicious abuse of those images. Thus, it is important to develop a generalized detector for synthesized images of any GAN model or object category, including those unseen during the training phase. However, the conventional methods heavily depend on the training settings, which cause a dramatic decline in performance when tested with unknown domains. To resolve the issue and obtain a generalized detection ability, we propose Bilateral High-Pass Filters (BiHPF), which amplify the effect of the frequency-level artifacts that are known to be found in the synthesized images of generative models. Numerous experimental results validate that our method outperforms other state-of-the-art methods, even when tested with unseen domains.
A Lite BERT (ALBERT) has been introduced to scale up deep bidirectional representation learning for natural languages. Due to the lack of pretrained ALBERT models for Korean language, the best available practice is the multilingual model or resorting back to the any other BERT-based model. In this paper, we develop and pretrain KoreALBERT, a monolingual ALBERT model specifically for Korean language understanding. We introduce a new training objective, namely Word Order Prediction (WOP), and use alongside the existing MLM and SOP criteria to the same architecture and model parameters. Despite having significantly fewer model parameters (thus, quicker to train), our pretrained KoreALBERT outperforms its BERT counterpart on 6 different NLU tasks. Consistent with the empirical results in English by Lan et al., KoreALBERT seems to improve downstream task performance involving multi-sentence encoding for Korean language. The pretrained KoreALBERT is publicly available to encourage research and application development for Korean NLP.
In zero-shot cross-lingual transfer, a supervised NLP task trained on a corpus in one language is directly applicable to another language without any additional training. A source of cross-lingual transfer can be as straightforward as lexical overlap between languages (e.g., use of the same scripts, shared subwords) that naturally forces text embeddings to occupy a similar representation space. Recently introduced cross-lingual language model (XLM) pretraining brings out neural parameter sharing in Transformer-style networks as the most important factor for the transfer. In this paper, we aim to validate the hypothetically strong cross-lingual transfer properties induced by XLM pretraining. Particularly, we take XLM-RoBERTa (XLMR) in our experiments that extend semantic textual similarity (STS), SQuAD and KorQuAD for machine reading comprehension, sentiment analysis, and alignment of sentence embeddings under various cross-lingual settings. Our results indicate that the presence of cross-lingual transfer is most pronounced in STS, sentiment analysis the next, and MRC the last. That is, the complexity of a downstream task softens the degree of crosslingual transfer. All of our results are empirically observed and measured, and we make our code and data publicly available.
This paper introduces SelfMatch, a semi-supervised learning method that combines the power of contrastive self-supervised learning and consistency regularization. SelfMatch consists of two stages: (1) self-supervised pre-training based on contrastive learning and (2) semi-supervised fine-tuning based on augmentation consistency regularization. We empirically demonstrate that SelfMatch achieves the state-of-the-art results on standard benchmark datasets such as CIFAR-10 and SVHN. For example, for CIFAR-10 with 40 labeled examples, SelfMatch achieves 93.19% accuracy that outperforms the strong previous methods such as MixMatch (52.46%), UDA (70.95%), ReMixMatch (80.9%), and FixMatch (86.19%). We note that SelfMatch can close the gap between supervised learning (95.87%) and semi-supervised learning (93.19%) by using only a few labels for each class.
In neural combinatorial optimization (CO), reinforcement learning (RL) can turn a deep neural net into a fast, powerful heuristic solver of NP-hard problems. This approach has a great potential in practical applications because it allows near-optimal solutions to be found without expert guides armed with substantial domain knowledge. We introduce Policy Optimization with Multiple Optima (POMO), an end-to-end approach for building such a heuristic solver. POMO is applicable to a wide range of CO problems. It is designed to exploit the symmetries in the representation of a CO solution. POMO uses a modified REINFORCE algorithm that forces diverse rollouts towards all optimal solutions. Empirically, the low-variance baseline of POMO makes RL training fast and stable, and it is more resistant to local minima compared to previous approaches. We also introduce a new augmentation-based inference method, which accompanies POMO nicely. We demonstrate the effectiveness of POMO by solving three popular NP-hard problems, namely, traveling salesman (TSP), capacitated vehicle routing (CVRP), and 0-1 knapsack (KP). For all three, our solver based on POMO shows a significant improvement in performance over all recent learned heuristics. In particular, we achieve the optimality gap of 0.14% with TSP100 while reducing inference time by more than an order of magnitude.