The class-wise training losses often diverge as a result of the various levels of intra-class and inter-class appearance variation, and we find that the diverging class-wise training losses cause the uncalibrated prediction with its reliability. To resolve the issue, we propose a new calibration method to synchronize the class-wise training losses. We design a new training loss to alleviate the variance of class-wise training losses by using multiple class-wise scaling factors. Since our framework can compensate the training losses of overfitted classes with those of under-fitted classes, the integrated training loss is preserved, preventing the performance drop even after the model calibration. Furthermore, our method can be easily employed in the post-hoc calibration methods, allowing us to use the pre-trained model as an initial model and reduce the additional computation for model calibration. We validate the proposed framework by employing it in the various post-hoc calibration methods, which generally improves calibration performance while preserving accuracy, and discover through the investigation that our approach performs well with unbalanced datasets and untuned hyperparameters.
Although transformer networks are recently employed in various vision tasks with outperforming performance, extensive training data and a lengthy training time are required to train a model to disregard an inductive bias. Using trainable links between the channel-wise spatial attention of a pre-trained Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and the attention head of Vision Transformers (ViT), we present a regularization technique to improve the training efficiency of ViT. The trainable links are referred to as the attention augmentation module, which is trained simultaneously with ViT, boosting the training of ViT and allowing it to avoid the overfitting issue caused by a lack of data. From the trained attention augmentation module, we can extract the relevant relationship between each CNN activation map and each ViT attention head, and based on this, we also propose an advanced attention augmentation module. Consequently, even with a small amount of data, the suggested method considerably improves the performance of ViT while achieving faster convergence during training.
Various deepfake detectors have been proposed, but challenges still exist to detect images of unknown categories or GAN models outside of the training settings. Such issues arise from the overfitting issue, which we discover from our own analysis and the previous studies to originate from the frequency-level artifacts in generated images. We find that ignoring the frequency-level artifacts can improve the detector's generalization across various GAN models, but it can reduce the model's performance for the trained GAN models. Thus, we design a framework to generalize the deepfake detector for both the known and unseen GAN models. Our framework generates the frequency-level perturbation maps to make the generated images indistinguishable from the real images. By updating the deepfake detector along with the training of the perturbation generator, our model is trained to detect the frequency-level artifacts at the initial iterations and consider the image-level irregularities at the last iterations. For experiments, we design new test scenarios varying from the training settings in GAN models, color manipulations, and object categories. Numerous experiments validate the state-of-the-art performance of our deepfake detector.
Although the recent advancement in generative models brings diverse advantages to society, it can also be abused with malicious purposes, such as fraud, defamation, and fake news. To prevent such cases, vigorous research is conducted to distinguish the generated images from the real images, but challenges still remain to distinguish the unseen generated images outside of the training settings. Such limitations occur due to data dependency arising from the model's overfitting issue to the training data generated by specific GANs. To overcome this issue, we adopt a self-supervised scheme to propose a novel framework. Our proposed method is composed of the artificial fingerprint generator reconstructing the high-quality artificial fingerprints of GAN images for detailed analysis, and the GAN detector distinguishing GAN images by learning the reconstructed artificial fingerprints. To improve the generalization of the artificial fingerprint generator, we build multiple autoencoders with different numbers of upconvolution layers. With numerous ablation studies, the robust generalization of our method is validated by outperforming the generalization of the previous state-of-the-art algorithms, even without utilizing the GAN images of the training dataset.
Image-mixing augmentations (e.g., Mixup or CutMix), which typically mix two images, have become de-facto training tricks for image classification. Despite their huge success on image classification, the number of images to mix has not been profoundly investigated by the previous works, only showing the naive K-image expansion leads to poor performance degradation. This paper derives a new K-image mixing augmentation based on the stick-breaking process under Dirichlet prior. We show that our method can train more robust and generalized classifiers through extensive experiments and analysis on classification accuracy, a shape of a loss landscape and adversarial robustness, than the usual two-image methods. Furthermore, we show that our probabilistic model can measure the sample-wise uncertainty and can boost the efficiency for Network Architecture Search (NAS) with 7x reduced search time.
In online markets, sellers can maliciously recapture others' images on display screens to utilize as spoof images, which can be challenging to distinguish in human eyes. To prevent such harm, we propose an anti-spoofing method using the paired rgb images and depth maps provided by the mobile camera with a Time-of-Fight sensor. When images are recaptured on display screens, various patterns differing by the screens as known as the moir\'e patterns can be also captured in spoof images. These patterns lead the anti-spoofing model to be overfitted and unable to detect spoof images recaptured on unseen media. To avoid the issue, we build a novel representation model composed of two embedding models, which can be trained without considering the recaptured images. Also, we newly introduce mToF dataset, the largest and most diverse object anti-spoofing dataset, and the first to utilize ToF data. Experimental results confirm that our model achieves robust generalization even across unseen domains.
The advancement in numerous generative models has a two-fold effect: a simple and easy generation of realistic synthesized images, but also an increased risk of malicious abuse of those images. Thus, it is important to develop a generalized detector for synthesized images of any GAN model or object category, including those unseen during the training phase. However, the conventional methods heavily depend on the training settings, which cause a dramatic decline in performance when tested with unknown domains. To resolve the issue and obtain a generalized detection ability, we propose Bilateral High-Pass Filters (BiHPF), which amplify the effect of the frequency-level artifacts that are known to be found in the synthesized images of generative models. Numerous experimental results validate that our method outperforms other state-of-the-art methods, even when tested with unseen domains.
Active Learning for discriminative models has largely been studied with the focus on individual samples, with less emphasis on how classes are distributed or which classes are hard to deal with. In this work, we show that this is harmful. We propose a method based on the Bayes' rule, that can naturally incorporate class imbalance into the Active Learning framework. We derive that three terms should be considered together when estimating the probability of a classifier making a mistake for a given sample; i) probability of mislabelling a class, ii) likelihood of the data given a predicted class, and iii) the prior probability on the abundance of a predicted class. Implementing these terms requires a generative model and an intractable likelihood estimation. Therefore, we train a Variational Auto Encoder (VAE) for this purpose. To further tie the VAE with the classifier and facilitate VAE training, we use the classifiers' deep feature representations as input to the VAE. By considering all three probabilities, among them especially the data imbalance, we can substantially improve the potential of existing methods under limited data budget. We show that our method can be applied to classification tasks on multiple different datasets -- including one that is a real-world dataset with heavy data imbalance -- significantly outperforming the state of the art.
In this paper, we propose a novel structure for a cross-modal data association, which is inspired by the recent research on the associative learning structure of the brain. We formulate the cross-modal association in Bayesian inference framework realized by a deep neural network with multiple variational auto-encoders and variational associators. The variational associators transfer the latent spaces between auto-encoders that represent different modalities. The proposed structure successfully associates even heterogeneous modal data and easily incorporates the additional modality to the entire network via the proposed cross-modal associator. Furthermore, the proposed structure can be trained with only a small amount of paired data since auto-encoders can be trained by unsupervised manner. Through experiments, the effectiveness of the proposed structure is validated on various datasets including visual and auditory data.
In person re-identification (ReID) task, because of its shortage of trainable dataset, it is common to utilize fine-tuning method using a classification network pre-trained on a large dataset. However, it is relatively difficult to sufficiently fine-tune the low-level layers of the network due to the gradient vanishing problem. In this work, we propose a novel fine-tuning strategy that allows low-level layers to be sufficiently trained by rolling back the weights of high-level layers to their initial pre-trained weights. Our strategy alleviates the problem of gradient vanishing in low-level layers and robustly trains the low-level layers to fit the ReID dataset, thereby increasing the performance of ReID tasks. The improved performance of the proposed strategy is validated via several experiments. Furthermore, without any add-ons such as pose estimation or segmentation, our strategy exhibits state-of-the-art performance using only vanilla deep convolutional neural network architecture.