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Nicolas Zilberstein, Chris Dick, Rahman Doost-Mohammady, Ashutosh Sabharwal, Santiago Segarra

We propose a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) detector based on an annealed version of the \emph{underdamped} Langevin (stochastic) dynamic. Our detector achieves state-of-the-art performance in terms of symbol error rate (SER) while keeping the computational complexity in check. Indeed, our method can be easily tuned to strike the right balance between computational complexity and performance as required by the application at hand. This balance is achieved by tuning hyperparameters that control the length of the simulated Langevin dynamic. Through numerical experiments, we demonstrate that our detector yields lower SER than competing approaches (including learning-based ones) with a lower running time compared to a previously proposed \emph{overdamped} Langevin-based MIMO detector.

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Madeline Navarro, Santiago Segarra

We consider the problem of estimating the topology of multiple networks from nodal observations, where these networks are assumed to be drawn from the same (unknown) random graph model. We adopt a graphon as our random graph model, which is a nonparametric model from which graphs of potentially different sizes can be drawn. The versatility of graphons allows us to tackle the joint inference problem even for the cases where the graphs to be recovered contain different number of nodes and lack precise alignment across the graphs. Our solution is based on combining a maximum likelihood penalty with graphon estimation schemes and can be used to augment existing network inference methods. The proposed joint network and graphon estimation is further enhanced with the introduction of a robust method for noisy graph sampling information. We validate our proposed approach by comparing its performance against competing methods in synthetic and real-world datasets.

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Yu Zhu, Santiago Segarra

We study p-Laplacians and spectral clustering for a recently proposed hypergraph model that incorporates edge-dependent vertex weights (EDVWs). These weights can reflect different importance of vertices within a hyperedge, thus conferring the hypergraph model higher expressivity and flexibility. By constructing submodular EDVWs-based splitting functions, we convert hypergraphs with EDVWs into submodular hypergraphs for which the spectral theory is better developed. In this way, existing concepts and theorems such as p-Laplacians and Cheeger inequalities proposed under the submodular hypergraph setting can be directly extended to hypergraphs with EDVWs. For submodular hypergraphs with EDVWs-based splitting functions, we propose an efficient algorithm to compute the eigenvector associated with the second smallest eigenvalue of the hypergraph 1-Laplacian. We then utilize this eigenvector to cluster the vertices, achieving higher clustering accuracy than traditional spectral clustering based on the 2-Laplacian. More broadly, the proposed algorithm works for all submodular hypergraphs that are graph reducible. Numerical experiments using real-world data demonstrate the effectiveness of combining spectral clustering based on the 1-Laplacian and EDVWs.

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Samuel Rey, T. Mitchell Roddenberry, Santiago Segarra, Antonio G. Marques

This paper looks at the task of network topology inference, where the goal is to learn an unknown graph from nodal observations. One of the novelties of the approach put forth is the consideration of prior information about the density of motifs of the unknown graph to enhance the inference of classical Gaussian graphical models. Dealing with the density of motifs directly constitutes a challenging combinatorial task. However, we note that if two graphs have similar motif densities, one can show that the expected value of a polynomial applied to their empirical spectral distributions will be similar. Guided by this, we first assume that we have a reference graph that is related to the sought graph (in the sense of having similar motif densities) and then, we exploit this relation by incorporating a similarity constraint and a regularization term in the network topology inference optimization problem. The (non-)convexity of the optimization problem is discussed and a computational efficient alternating majorization-minimization algorithm is designed. We assess the performance of the proposed method through exhaustive numerical experiments where different constraints are considered and compared against popular baselines algorithms on both synthetic and real-world datasets.

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Nicolas Zilberstein, Chris Dick, Rahman Doost-Mohammady, Ashutosh Sabharwal, Santiago Segarra

Solving the optimal symbol detection problem in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems is known to be NP-hard. Hence, the objective of any detector of practical relevance is to get reasonably close to the optimal solution while keeping the computational complexity in check. In this work, we propose a MIMO detector based on an annealed version of Langevin (stochastic) dynamics. More precisely, we define a stochastic dynamical process whose stationary distribution coincides with the posterior distribution of the symbols given our observations. In essence, this allows us to approximate the maximum a posteriori estimator of the transmitted symbols by sampling from the proposed Langevin dynamic. Furthermore, we carefully craft this stochastic dynamic by gradually adding a sequence of noise with decreasing variance to the trajectories, which ensures that the estimated symbols belong to a pre-specified discrete constellation. Based on the proposed MIMO detector, we also design a robust version of the method by unfolding and parameterizing one term -- the score of the likelihood -- by a neural network. Through numerical experiments in both synthetic and real-world data, we show that our proposed detector yields state-of-the-art symbol error rate performance and the robust version becomes noise-variance agnostic.

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Zhongyuan Zhao, Ananthram Swami, Santiago Segarra

Distributed scheduling algorithms for throughput or utility maximization in dense wireless multi-hop networks can have overwhelmingly high overhead, causing increased congestion, energy consumption, radio footprint, and security vulnerability. For wireless networks with dense connectivity, we propose a distributed scheme for link sparsification with graph convolutional networks (GCNs), which can reduce the scheduling overhead while keeping most of the network capacity. In a nutshell, a trainable GCN module generates node embeddings as topology-aware and reusable parameters for a local decision mechanism, based on which a link can withdraw itself from the scheduling contention if it is not likely to win. In medium-sized wireless networks, our proposed sparse scheduler beats classical threshold-based sparsification policies by retaining almost $70\%$ of the total capacity achieved by a distributed greedy max-weight scheduler with $0.4\%$ of the point-to-point message complexity and $2.6\%$ of the average number of interfering neighbors per link.

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Nicolas Zilberstein, Chris Dick, Rahman Doost-Mohammady, Ashutosh Sabharwal, Santiago Segarra

Optimal symbol detection in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems is known to be an NP-hard problem. Hence, the objective of any detector of practical relevance is to get reasonably close to the optimal solution while keeping the computational complexity in check. In this work, we propose a MIMO detector based on an annealed version of Langevin (stochastic) dynamics. More precisely, we define a stochastic dynamical process whose stationary distribution coincides with the posterior distribution of the symbols given our observations. In essence, this allows us to approximate the maximum a posteriori estimator of the transmitted symbols by sampling from the proposed Langevin dynamic. Furthermore, we carefully craft this stochastic dynamic by gradually adding a sequence of noise with decreasing variance to the trajectories, which ensures that the estimated symbols belong to a pre-specified discrete constellation. Through numerical experiments, we show that our proposed detector yields state-of-the-art symbol error rate performance.

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T. Mitchell Roddenberry, Fernando Gama, Richard G. Baraniuk, Santiago Segarra

Graph filtering is the cornerstone operation in graph signal processing (GSP). Thus, understanding it is key in developing potent GSP methods. Graph filters are local and distributed linear operations, whose output depends only on the local neighborhood of each node. Moreover, a graph filter's output can be computed separately at each node by carrying out repeated exchanges with immediate neighbors. Graph filters can be compactly written as polynomials of a graph shift operator (typically, a sparse matrix description of the graph). This has led to relating the properties of the filters with the spectral properties of the corresponding matrix -- which encodes global structure of the graph. In this work, we propose a framework that relies solely on the local distribution of the neighborhoods of a graph. The crux of this approach is to describe graphs and graph signals in terms of a measurable space of rooted balls. Leveraging this, we are able to seamlessly compare graphs of different sizes and coming from different models, yielding results on the convergence of spectral densities, transferability of filters across arbitrary graphs, and continuity of graph signal properties with respect to the distribution of local substructures.

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Madeline Navarro, Santiago Segarra

We consider the problem of estimating the topology of multiple networks from nodal observations, where these networks are assumed to be drawn from the same (unknown) random graph model. We adopt a graphon as our random graph model, which is a nonparametric model from which graphs of potentially different sizes can be drawn. The versatility of graphons allows us to tackle the joint inference problem even for the cases where the graphs to be recovered contain different number of nodes and lack precise alignment across the graphs. Our solution is based on combining a maximum likelihood penalty with graphon estimation schemes and can be used to augment existing network inference methods. We validate our proposed approach by comparing its performance against competing methods in synthetic and real-world datasets.

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Boning Li, Gunjan Verma, Santiago Segarra

We develop a novel graph-based trainable framework to maximize the weighted sum energy efficiency (WSEE) for power allocation in wireless communication networks. To address the non-convex nature of the problem, the proposed method consists of modular structures inspired by a classical iterative suboptimal approach and enhanced with learnable components. More precisely, we propose a deep unfolding of the successive concave approximation (SCA) method. In our unfolded SCA (USCA) framework, the originally preset parameters are now learnable via graph convolutional neural networks (GCNs) that directly exploit multi-user channel state information as the underlying graph adjacency matrix. We show the permutation equivariance of the proposed architecture, which promotes generalizability across different network topologies of varying size, density, and channel distribution. The USCA framework is trained through a stochastic gradient descent approach using a progressive training strategy. The unsupervised loss is carefully devised to feature the monotonic property of the objective under maximum power constraints. Comprehensive numerical results demonstrate outstanding performance and robustness of USCA over state-of-the-art benchmarks.

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