Recent works in dialogue state tracking (DST) focus on an open vocabulary-based setting to resolve scalability and generalization issues of the predefined ontology-based approaches. However, they are computationally inefficient in that they predict the dialogue state at every turn from scratch. In this paper, we consider dialogue state as an explicit fixed-sized memory, and propose a selectively overwriting mechanism for more efficient DST. This mechanism consists of two steps: (1) predicting state operation on each of the memory slots, and (2) overwriting the memory with new values, of which only a few are generated according to the predicted state operations. Moreover, reducing the burden of the decoder by decomposing DST into two sub-tasks and guiding the decoder to focus only one of the tasks enables a more effective training and improvement in the performance. As a result, our proposed SOM-DST (Selectively Overwriting Memory for Dialogue State Tracking) achieves state-of-the-art joint goal accuracy with 51.38% in MultiWOZ 2.0 and 52.57% in MultiWOZ 2.1 in an open vocabulary-based DST setting. In addition, a massive gap between the current accuracy and the accuracy when ground truth operations are given suggests that improving the performance of state operation prediction is a promising research direction of DST.
Answerer in Questioner's Mind (AQM) is an information-theoretic framework that has been recently proposed for task-oriented dialog systems. AQM benefits from asking a question that would maximize the information gain when it is asked. However, due to its intrinsic nature of explicitly calculating the information gain, AQM has a limitation when the solution space is very large. To address this, we propose AQM+ that can deal with a large-scale problem and ask a question that is more coherent to the current context of the dialog. We evaluate our method on GuessWhich, a challenging task-oriented visual dialog problem, where the number of candidate classes is near 10K. Our experimental results and ablation studies show that AQM+ outperforms the state-of-the-art models by a remarkable margin with a reasonable approximation. In particular, the proposed AQM+ reduces more than 60% of error as the dialog proceeds, while the comparative algorithms diminish the error by less than 6%. Based on our results, we argue that AQM+ is a general task-oriented dialog algorithm that can be applied for non-yes-or-no responses.
Goal-oriented dialog has been given attention due to its numerous applications in artificial intelligence. Goal-oriented dialogue tasks occur when a questioner asks an action-oriented question and an answerer responds with the intent of letting the questioner know a correct action to take. To ask the adequate question, deep learning and reinforcement learning have been recently applied. However, these approaches struggle to find a competent recurrent neural questioner, owing to the complexity of learning a series of sentences. Motivated by theory of mind, we propose "Answerer in Questioner's Mind" (AQM), a novel algorithm for goal-oriented dialog. With AQM, a questioner asks and infers based on an approximated probabilistic model of the answerer. The questioner figures out the answerer's intention via selecting a plausible question by explicitly calculating the information gain of the candidate intentions and possible answers to each question. We test our framework on two goal-oriented visual dialog tasks: "MNIST Counting Dialog" and "GuessWhat?!." In our experiments, AQM outperforms comparative algorithms by a large margin.
Catastrophic forgetting is a problem of neural networks that loses the information of the first task after training the second task. Here, we propose a method, i.e. incremental moment matching (IMM), to resolve this problem. IMM incrementally matches the moment of the posterior distribution of the neural network which is trained on the first and the second task, respectively. To make the search space of posterior parameter smooth, the IMM procedure is complemented by various transfer learning techniques including weight transfer, L2-norm of the old and the new parameter, and a variant of dropout with the old parameter. We analyze our approach on a variety of datasets including the MNIST, CIFAR-10, Caltech-UCSD-Birds, and Lifelog datasets. The experimental results show that IMM achieves state-of-the-art performance by balancing the information between an old and a new network.
Recently, reinforcement learning has been successfully applied to the logical game of Go, various Atari games, and even a 3D game, Labyrinth, though it continues to have problems in sparse reward settings. It is difficult to explore, but also difficult to exploit, a small number of successes when learning policy. To solve this issue, the subgoal and option framework have been proposed. However, discovering subgoals online is too expensive to be used to learn options in large state spaces. We propose Micro-objective learning (MOL) to solve this problem. The main idea is to estimate how important a state is while training and to give an additional reward proportional to its importance. We evaluated our algorithm in two Atari games: Montezuma's Revenge and Seaquest. With three experiments to each game, MOL significantly improved the baseline scores. Especially in Montezuma's Revenge, MOL achieved two times better results than the previous state-of-the-art model.
Deep neural networks continue to advance the state-of-the-art of image recognition tasks with various methods. However, applications of these methods to multimodality remain limited. We present Multimodal Residual Networks (MRN) for the multimodal residual learning of visual question-answering, which extends the idea of the deep residual learning. Unlike the deep residual learning, MRN effectively learns the joint representation from vision and language information. The main idea is to use element-wise multiplication for the joint residual mappings exploiting the residual learning of the attentional models in recent studies. Various alternative models introduced by multimodality are explored based on our study. We achieve the state-of-the-art results on the Visual QA dataset for both Open-Ended and Multiple-Choice tasks. Moreover, we introduce a novel method to visualize the attention effect of the joint representations for each learning block using back-propagation algorithm, even though the visual features are collapsed without spatial information.
The online learning of deep neural networks is an interesting problem of machine learning because, for example, major IT companies want to manage the information of the massive data uploaded on the web daily, and this technology can contribute to the next generation of lifelong learning. We aim to train deep models from new data that consists of new classes, distributions, and tasks at minimal computational cost, which we call online deep learning. Unfortunately, deep neural network learning through classical online and incremental methods does not work well in both theory and practice. In this paper, we introduce dual memory architectures for online incremental deep learning. The proposed architecture consists of deep representation learners and fast learnable shallow kernel networks, both of which synergize to track the information of new data. During the training phase, we use various online, incremental ensemble, and transfer learning techniques in order to achieve lower error of the architecture. On the MNIST, CIFAR-10, and ImageNet image recognition tasks, the proposed dual memory architectures performs much better than the classical online and incremental ensemble algorithm, and their accuracies are similar to that of the batch learner.