We study the robustness of learned image compression models against adversarial attacks and present a training-free defense technique based on simple image transform functions. Recent learned image compression models are vulnerable to adversarial attacks that result in poor compression rate, low reconstruction quality, or weird artifacts. To address the limitations, we propose a simple but effective two-way compression algorithm with random input transforms, which is conveniently applicable to existing image compression models. Unlike the na\"ive approaches, our approach preserves the original rate-distortion performance of the models on clean images. Moreover, the proposed algorithm requires no additional training or modification of existing models, making it more practical. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed techniques through extensive experiments under multiple compression models, evaluation metrics, and attack scenarios.
We propose a novel diffusion model called observation-guided diffusion probabilistic model (OGDM), which effectively addresses the trade-off between quality control and fast sampling. Our approach reestablishes the training objective by integrating the guidance of the observation process with the Markov chain in a principled way. This is achieved by introducing an additional loss term derived from the observation based on the conditional discriminator on noise level, which employs Bernoulli distribution indicating whether its input lies on the (noisy) real manifold or not. This strategy allows us to optimize the more accurate negative log-likelihood induced in the inference stage especially when the number of function evaluations is limited. The proposed training method is also advantageous even when incorporated only into the fine-tuning process, and it is compatible with various fast inference strategies since our method yields better denoising networks using the exactly same inference procedure without incurring extra computational cost. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed training algorithm using diverse inference methods on strong diffusion model baselines.
We propose a versatile deep image compression network based on Spatial Feature Transform (SFT arXiv:1804.02815), which takes a source image and a corresponding quality map as inputs and produce a compressed image with variable rates. Our model covers a wide range of compression rates using a single model, which is controlled by arbitrary pixel-wise quality maps. In addition, the proposed framework allows us to perform task-aware image compressions for various tasks, e.g., classification, by efficiently estimating optimized quality maps specific to target tasks for our encoding network. This is even possible with a pretrained network without learning separate models for individual tasks. Our algorithm achieves outstanding rate-distortion trade-off compared to the approaches based on multiple models that are optimized separately for several different target rates. At the same level of compression, the proposed approach successfully improves performance on image classification and text region quality preservation via task-aware quality map estimation without additional model training. The code is available at the project website: https://github.com/micmic123/QmapCompression
We propose a generative adversarial network with multiple discriminators, where each discriminator is specialized to distinguish the subset of a real dataset. This approach facilitates learning a generator coinciding with the underlying data distribution and thus mitigates the chronic mode collapse problem. From the inspiration of multiple choice learning, we guide each discriminator to have expertise in the subset of the entire data and allow the generator to find reasonable correspondences between the latent and real data spaces automatically without supervision for training examples and the number of discriminators. Despite the use of multiple discriminators, the backbone networks are shared across the discriminators and the increase of training cost is minimized. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm in the standard datasets using multiple evaluation metrics.
Modern navigation algorithms based on deep reinforcement learning (RL) show promising efficiency and robustness. However, most deep RL algorithms operate in a risk-neutral manner, making no special attempt to shield users from relatively rare but serious outcomes, even if such shielding might cause little loss of performance. Furthermore, such algorithms typically make no provisions to ensure safety in the presence of inaccuracies in the models on which they were trained, beyond adding a cost-of-collision and some domain randomization while training, in spite of the formidable complexity of the environments in which they operate. In this paper, we present a novel distributional RL algorithm that not only learns an uncertainty-aware policy, but can also change its risk measure without expensive fine-tuning or retraining. Our method shows superior performance and safety over baselines in partially-observed navigation tasks. We also demonstrate that agents trained using our method can adapt their policies to a wide range of risk measures at run-time.
Deep reinforcement learning (DRL) has shown incredible performance in learning various tasks to the human level. However, unlike human perception, current DRL models connect the entire low-level sensory input to the state-action values rather than exploiting the relationship between and among entities that constitute the sensory input. Because of this difference, DRL needs vast amount of experience samples to learn. In this paper, we propose a Multi-focus Attention Network (MANet) which mimics human ability to spatially abstract the low-level sensory input into multiple entities and attend to them simultaneously. The proposed method first divides the low-level input into several segments which we refer to as partial states. After this segmentation, parallel attention layers attend to the partial states relevant to solving the task. Our model estimates state-action values using these attended partial states. In our experiments, MANet attains highest scores with significantly less experience samples. Additionally, the model shows higher performance compared to the Deep Q-network and the single attention model as benchmarks. Furthermore, we extend our model to attentive communication model for performing multi-agent cooperative tasks. In multi-agent cooperative task experiments, our model shows 20% faster learning than existing state-of-the-art model.
* AAAI 2017 Workshop on What's next for AI in games (WNAIG 2017), 2017
Recently, reinforcement learning has been successfully applied to the logical game of Go, various Atari games, and even a 3D game, Labyrinth, though it continues to have problems in sparse reward settings. It is difficult to explore, but also difficult to exploit, a small number of successes when learning policy. To solve this issue, the subgoal and option framework have been proposed. However, discovering subgoals online is too expensive to be used to learn options in large state spaces. We propose Micro-objective learning (MOL) to solve this problem. The main idea is to estimate how important a state is while training and to give an additional reward proportional to its importance. We evaluated our algorithm in two Atari games: Montezuma's Revenge and Seaquest. With three experiments to each game, MOL significantly improved the baseline scores. Especially in Montezuma's Revenge, MOL achieved two times better results than the previous state-of-the-art model.
Personal robots are expected to interact with the user by recognizing the user's face. However, in most of the service robot applications, the user needs to move himself/herself to allow the robot to see him/her face to face. To overcome such limitations, a method for estimating human body orientation is required. Previous studies used various components such as feature extractors and classification models to classify the orientation which resulted in low performance. For a more robust and accurate approach, we propose the light weight convolutional neural networks, an end to end system, for estimating human body orientation. Our body orientation estimation model achieved 81.58% and 94% accuracy with the benchmark dataset and our own dataset respectively. The proposed method can be used in a wide range of service robot applications which depend on the ability to estimate human body orientation. To show its usefulness in service robot applications, we designed a simple robot application which allows the robot to move towards the user's frontal plane. With this, we demonstrated an improved face detection rate.