The growing reliance of society on social media for authentic information has done nothing but increase over the past years. This has only raised the potential consequences of the spread of misinformation. One of the growing methods in popularity is to deceive users using a deepfake. A deepfake is an invention that has come with the latest technological advancements, which enables nefarious online users to replace their face with a computer generated, synthetic face of numerous powerful members of society. Deepfake images and videos now provide the means to mimic important political and cultural figures to spread massive amounts of false information. Models that can detect these deepfakes to prevent the spread of misinformation are now of tremendous necessity. In this paper, we propose a new deepfake detection schema utilizing two deep learning algorithms: long short term memory and multilayer perceptron. We evaluate our model using a publicly available dataset named 140k Real and Fake Faces to detect images altered by a deepfake with accuracies achieved as high as 74.7%
Conspicuous progression in the field of machine learning and deep learning have led the jump of highly realistic fake media, these media oftentimes referred as deepfakes. Deepfakes are fabricated media which are generated by sophisticated AI that are at times very difficult to set apart from the real media. So far, this media can be uploaded to the various social media platforms, hence advertising it to the world got easy, calling for an efficacious countermeasure. Thus, one of the optimistic counter steps against deepfake would be deepfake detection. To undertake this threat, researchers in the past have created models to detect deepfakes based on ML/DL techniques like Convolutional Neural Networks. This paper aims to explore different methodologies with an intention to achieve a cost-effective model with a higher accuracy with different types of the datasets, which is to address the generalizability of the dataset.
Engineering more secure software has become a critical challenge in the cyber world. It is very important to develop methodologies, techniques, and tools for developing secure software. To develop secure software, software developers need to think like an attacker through mining software repositories. These aim to analyze and understand the data repositories related to software development. The main goal is to use these software repositories to support the decision-making process of software development. There are different vulnerability databases like Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE), Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures database (CVE), and CAPEC. We utilized a database called MITRE. MITRE ATT&CK tactics and techniques have been used in various ways and methods, but tools for utilizing these tactics and techniques in the early stages of the software development life cycle (SDLC) are lacking. In this paper, we use machine learning algorithms to map requirements to the MITRE ATT&CK database and determine the accuracy of each mapping depending on the data split.
In the recent years, social media has grown to become a major source of information for many online users. This has given rise to the spread of misinformation through deepfakes. Deepfakes are videos or images that replace one persons face with another computer-generated face, often a more recognizable person in society. With the recent advances in technology, a person with little technological experience can generate these videos. This enables them to mimic a power figure in society, such as a president or celebrity, creating the potential danger of spreading misinformation and other nefarious uses of deepfakes. To combat this online threat, researchers have developed models that are designed to detect deepfakes. This study looks at various deepfake detection models that use deep learning algorithms to combat this looming threat. This survey focuses on providing a comprehensive overview of the current state of deepfake detection models and the unique approaches many researchers take to solving this problem. The benefits, limitations, and suggestions for future work will be thoroughly discussed throughout this paper.
Biometric based authentication is currently playing an essential role over conventional authentication system; however, the risk of presentation attacks subsequently rising. Our research aims at identifying the areas where presentation attack can be prevented even though adequate biometric image samples of users are limited. Our work focusses on generating photorealistic synthetic images from the real image sets by implementing Deep Convolution Generative Adversarial Net (DCGAN). We have implemented the temporal and spatial augmentation during the fake image generation. Our work detects the presentation attacks on facial and iris images using our deep CNN, inspired by VGGNet . We applied the deep neural net techniques on three different biometric image datasets, namely MICHE I , VISOB , and UBIPr . The datasets, used in this research, contain images that are captured both in controlled and uncontrolled environment along with different resolutions and sizes. We obtained the best test accuracy of 97% on UBI-Pr  Iris datasets. For MICHE-I  and VISOB  datasets, we achieved the test accuracies of 95% and 96% respectively.
Static authentication methods, like passwords, grow increasingly weak with advancements in technology and attack strategies. Continuous authentication has been proposed as a solution, in which users who have gained access to an account are still monitored in order to continuously verify that the user is not an imposter who had access to the user credentials. Mouse dynamics is the behavior of a users mouse movements and is a biometric that has shown great promise for continuous authentication schemes. This article builds upon our previous published work by evaluating our dataset of 40 users using three machine learning and deep learning algorithms. Two evaluation scenarios are considered: binary classifiers are used for user authentication, with the top performer being a 1-dimensional convolutional neural network with a peak average test accuracy of 85.73% across the top 10 users. Multi class classification is also examined using an artificial neural network which reaches an astounding peak accuracy of 92.48% the highest accuracy we have seen for any classifier on this dataset.
The amount of secure data being stored on mobile devices has grown immensely in recent years. However, the security measures protecting this data have stayed static, with few improvements being done to the vulnerabilities of current authentication methods such as physiological biometrics or passwords. Instead of these methods, behavioral biometrics has recently been researched as a solution to these vulnerable authentication methods. In this study, we aim to contribute to the research being done on behavioral biometrics by creating and evaluating a user authentication scheme using behavioral biometrics. The behavioral biometrics used in this study include touch dynamics and phone movement, and we evaluate the performance of different single-modal and multi-modal combinations of the two biometrics. Using two publicly available datasets - BioIdent and Hand Movement Orientation and Grasp (H-MOG), this study uses seven common machine learning algorithms to evaluate performance. The algorithms used in the evaluation include Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, K-Nearest Neighbor, Naive Bayes, Logistic Regression, Multilayer Perceptron, and Long Short-Term Memory Recurrent Neural Networks, with accuracy rates reaching as high as 86%.
Human activity recognition using deep learning techniques has become increasing popular because of its high effectivity with recognizing complex tasks, as well as being relatively low in costs compared to more traditional machine learning techniques. This paper surveys some state-of-the-art human activity recognition models that are based on deep learning architecture and has layers containing Convolution Neural Networks (CNN), Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), or a mix of more than one type for a hybrid system. The analysis outlines how the models are implemented to maximize its effectivity and some of the potential limitations it faces.
Mobile devices have been manufactured and enhanced at growing rates in the past decades. While this growth has significantly evolved the capability of these devices, their security has been falling behind. This contrast in development between capability and security of mobile devices is a significant problem with the sensitive information of the public at risk. Continuing the previous work in this field, this study identifies key Machine Learning algorithms currently being used for behavioral biometric mobile authentication schemes and aims to provide a comprehensive review of these algorithms when used with touch dynamics and phone movement. Throughout this paper the benefits, limitations, and recommendations for future work will be discussed.
Facial emotion recognition is a vast and complex problem space within the domain of computer vision and thus requires a universally accepted baseline method with which to evaluate proposed models. While test datasets have served this purpose in the academic sphere real world application and testing of such models lacks any real comparison. Therefore we propose a framework in which models developed for FER can be compared and contrasted against one another in a constant standardized fashion. A lightweight convolutional neural network is trained on the AffectNet dataset a large variable dataset for facial emotion recognition and a web application is developed and deployed with our proposed framework as a proof of concept. The CNN is embedded into our application and is capable of instant real time facial emotion recognition. When tested on the AffectNet test set this model achieves high accuracy for emotion classification of eight different emotions. Using our framework the validity of this model and others can be properly tested by evaluating a model efficacy not only based on its accuracy on a sample test dataset, but also on in the wild experiments. Additionally, our application is built with the ability to save and store any image captured or uploaded to it for emotion recognition, allowing for the curation of more quality and diverse facial emotion recognition datasets.