Providing high quality explanations for AI predictions based on machine learning is a challenging and complex task. To work well it requires, among other factors: selecting a proper level of generality/specificity of the explanation; considering assumptions about the familiarity of the explanation beneficiary with the AI task under consideration; referring to specific elements that have contributed to the decision; making use of additional knowledge (e.g. expert evidence) which might not be part of the prediction process; and providing evidence supporting negative hypothesis. Finally, the system needs to formulate the explanation in a clearly interpretable, and possibly convincing, way. Given these considerations, ANTIDOTE fosters an integrated vision of explainable AI, where low-level characteristics of the deep learning process are combined with higher level schemes proper of the human argumentation capacity. ANTIDOTE will exploit cross-disciplinary competences in deep learning and argumentation to support a broader and innovative view of explainable AI, where the need for high-quality explanations for clinical cases deliberation is critical. As a first result of the project, we publish the Antidote CasiMedicos dataset to facilitate research on explainable AI in general, and argumentation in the medical domain in particular.
Detecting and normalizing temporal expressions is an essential step for many NLP tasks. While a variety of methods have been proposed for detection, best normalization approaches rely on hand-crafted rules. Furthermore, most of them have been designed only for English. In this paper we present a modular multilingual temporal processing system combining a fine-tuned Masked Language Model for detection, and a grammar-based normalizer. We experiment in Spanish and English and compare with HeidelTime, the state-of-the-art in multilingual temporal processing. We obtain best results in gold timex normalization, timex detection and type recognition, and competitive performance in the combined TempEval-3 relaxed value metric. A detailed error analysis shows that detecting only those timexes for which it is feasible to provide a normalization is highly beneficial in this last metric. This raises the question of which is the best strategy for timex processing, namely, leaving undetected those timexes for which is not easy to provide normalization rules or aiming for high coverage.
Lemmatization is a Natural Language Processing (NLP) task which consists of producing, from a given inflected word, its canonical form or lemma. Lemmatization is one of the basic tasks that facilitate downstream NLP applications, and is of particular importance for high-inflected languages. Given that the process to obtain a lemma from an inflected word can be explained by looking at its morphosyntactic category, including fine-grained morphosyntactic information to train contextual lemmatizers has become common practice, without analyzing whether that is the optimum in terms of downstream performance. Thus, in this paper we empirically investigate the role of morphological information to develop contextual lemmatizers in six languages within a varied spectrum of morphological complexity: Basque, Turkish, Russian, Czech, Spanish and English. Furthermore, and unlike the vast majority of previous work, we also evaluate lemmatizers in out-of-domain settings, which constitutes, after all, their most common application use. The results of our study are rather surprising: (i) providing lemmatizers with fine-grained morphological features during training is not that beneficial, not even for agglutinative languages; (ii) in fact, modern contextual word representations seem to implicitly encode enough morphological information to obtain good contextual lemmatizers without seeing any explicit morphological signal; (iii) the best lemmatizers out-of-domain are those using simple UPOS tags or those trained without morphology; (iv) current evaluation practices for lemmatization are not adequate to clearly discriminate between models.
Nowadays the medical domain is receiving more and more attention in applications involving Artificial Intelligence. Clinicians have to deal with an enormous amount of unstructured textual data to make a conclusion about patients' health in their everyday life. Argument mining helps to provide a structure to such data by detecting argumentative components in the text and classifying the relations between them. However, as it is the case for many tasks in Natural Language Processing in general and in medical text processing in particular, the large majority of the work on computational argumentation has been done only for English. This is also the case with the only dataset available for argumentation in the medical domain, namely, the annotated medical data of abstracts of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT) from the MEDLINE database. In order to mitigate the lack of annotated data for other languages, we empirically investigate several strategies to perform argument mining and classification in medical texts for a language for which no annotated data is available. This project shows that automatically translating and project annotations from English to a target language (Spanish) is an effective way to generate annotated data without manual intervention. Furthermore, our experiments demonstrate that the translation and projection approach outperforms zero-shot cross-lingual approaches using a large masked multilingual language model. Finally, we show how the automatically generated data in Spanish can also be used to improve results in the original English evaluation setting.
In the absence of readily available labeled data for a given task and language, annotation projection has been proposed as one of the possible strategies to automatically generate annotated data which may then be used to train supervised systems. Annotation projection has often been formulated as the task of projecting, on parallel corpora, some labels from a source into a target language. In this paper we present T-Projection, a new approach for annotation projection that leverages large pretrained text2text language models and state-of-the-art machine translation technology. T-Projection decomposes the label projection task into two subtasks: (i) The candidate generation step, in which a set of projection candidates using a multilingual T5 model is generated and, (ii) the candidate selection step, in which the candidates are ranked based on translation probabilities. We evaluate our method in three downstream tasks and five different languages. Our results show that T-projection improves the average F1 score of previous methods by more than 8 points.
Given the impact of language models on the field of Natural Language Processing, a number of Spanish encoder-only masked language models (aka BERTs) have been trained and released. These models were developed either within large projects using very large private corpora or by means of smaller scale academic efforts leveraging freely available data. In this paper we present a comprehensive head-to-head comparison of language models for Spanish with the following results: (i) Previously ignored multilingual models from large companies fare better than monolingual models, substantially changing the evaluation landscape of language models in Spanish; (ii) Results across the monolingual models are not conclusive, with supposedly smaller and inferior models performing competitively. Based on these empirical results, we argue for the need of more research to understand the factors underlying them. In this sense, the effect of corpus size, quality and pre-training techniques need to be further investigated to be able to obtain Spanish monolingual models significantly better than the multilingual ones released by large private companies, specially in the face of rapid ongoing progress in the field. The recent activity in the development of language technology for Spanish is to be welcomed, but our results show that building language models remains an open, resource-heavy problem which requires to marry resources (monetary and/or computational) with the best research expertise and practice.
Zero-resource cross-lingual transfer approaches aim to apply supervised models from a source language to unlabelled target languages. In this paper we perform an in-depth study of the two main techniques employed so far for cross-lingual zero-resource sequence labelling, based either on data or model transfer. Although previous research has proposed translation and annotation projection (data-based cross-lingual transfer) as an effective technique for cross-lingual sequence labelling, in this paper we experimentally demonstrate that high capacity multilingual language models applied in a zero-shot (model-based cross-lingual transfer) setting consistently outperform data-based cross-lingual transfer approaches. A detailed analysis of our results suggests that this might be due to important differences in language use. More specifically, machine translation often generates a textual signal which is different to what the models are exposed to when using gold standard data, which affects both the fine-tuning and evaluation processes. Our results also indicate that data-based cross-lingual transfer approaches remain a competitive option when high-capacity multilingual language models are not available.
The lack of wide coverage datasets annotated with everyday metaphorical expressions for languages other than English is striking. This means that most research on supervised metaphor detection has been published only for that language. In order to address this issue, this work presents the first corpus annotated with naturally occurring metaphors in Spanish large enough to develop systems to perform metaphor detection. The presented dataset, CoMeta, includes texts from various domains, namely, news, political discourse, Wikipedia and reviews. In order to label CoMeta, we apply the MIPVU method, the guidelines most commonly used to systematically annotate metaphor on real data. We use our newly created dataset to provide competitive baselines by fine-tuning several multilingual and monolingual state-of-the-art large language models. Furthermore, by leveraging the existing VUAM English data in addition to CoMeta, we present the, to the best of our knowledge, first cross-lingual experiments on supervised metaphor detection. Finally, we perform a detailed error analysis that explores the seemingly high transfer of everyday metaphor across these two languages and datasets.
The large majority of the research performed on stance detection has been focused on developing more or less sophisticated text classification systems, even when many benchmarks are based on social network data such as Twitter. This paper aims to take on the stance detection task by placing the emphasis not so much on the text itself but on the interaction data available on social networks. More specifically, we propose a new method to leverage social information such as friends and retweets by generating relational embeddings, namely, dense vector representations of interaction pairs. Our method can be applied to any language and target without any manual tuning. Our experiments on seven publicly available datasets and four different languages show that combining our relational embeddings with textual methods helps to substantially improve performance, obtaining best results for six out of seven evaluation settings, outperforming strong baselines based on large pre-trained language models.
Parliamentary transcripts provide a valuable resource to understand the reality and know about the most important facts that occur over time in our societies. Furthermore, the political debates captured in these transcripts facilitate research on political discourse from a computational social science perspective. In this paper we release the first version of a newly compiled corpus from Basque parliamentary transcripts. The corpus is characterized by heavy Basque-Spanish code-switching, and represents an interesting resource to study political discourse in contrasting languages such as Basque and Spanish. We enrich the corpus with metadata related to relevant attributes of the speakers and speeches (language, gender, party...) and process the text to obtain named entities and lemmas. The obtained metadata is then used to perform a detailed corpus analysis which provides interesting insights about the language use of the Basque political representatives across time, parties and gender.