Public imaging datasets are critical for the development and evaluation of automated tools in cancer imaging. Unfortunately, many do not include annotations or image-derived features, complicating their downstream analysis. Artificial intelligence-based annotation tools have been shown to achieve acceptable performance and thus can be used to automatically annotate large datasets. As part of the effort to enrich public data available within NCI Imaging Data Commons (IDC), here we introduce AI-generated annotations for two collections of computed tomography images of the chest, NSCLC-Radiomics, and the National Lung Screening Trial. Using publicly available AI algorithms we derived volumetric annotations of thoracic organs at risk, their corresponding radiomics features, and slice-level annotations of anatomical landmarks and regions. The resulting annotations are publicly available within IDC, where the DICOM format is used to harmonize the data and achieve FAIR principles. The annotations are accompanied by cloud-enabled notebooks demonstrating their use. This study reinforces the need for large, publicly accessible curated datasets and demonstrates how AI can be used to aid in cancer imaging.
This study proposes an end-to-end unsupervised diffeomorphic deformable registration framework based on moving mesh parameterization. Using this parameterization, a deformation field can be modeled with its transformation Jacobian determinant and curl of end velocity field. The new model of the deformation field has three important advantages; firstly, it relaxes the need for an explicit regularization term and the corresponding weight in the cost function. The smoothness is implicitly embedded in the solution which results in a physically plausible deformation field. Secondly, it guarantees diffeomorphism through explicit constraints applied to the transformation Jacobian determinant to keep it positive. Finally, it is suitable for cardiac data processing, since the nature of this parameterization is to define the deformation field in terms of the radial and rotational components. The effectiveness of the algorithm is investigated by evaluating the proposed method on three different data sets including 2D and 3D cardiac MRI scans. The results demonstrate that the proposed framework outperforms existing learning-based and non-learning-based methods while generating diffeomorphic transformations.
Purpose: Echocardiography is commonly used as a non-invasive imaging tool in clinical practice for the assessment of cardiac function. However, delineation of the left ventricle is challenging due to the inherent properties of ultrasound imaging, such as the presence of speckle noise and the low signal-to-noise ratio. Methods: We propose a semi-automated segmentation algorithm for the delineation of the left ventricle in temporal 3D echocardiography sequences. The method requires minimal user interaction and relies on a diffeomorphic registration approach. Advantages of the method include no dependence on prior geometrical information, training data, or registration from an atlas. Results: The method was evaluated using three-dimensional ultrasound scan sequences from 18 patients from the Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, Edmonton, Canada, and compared to manual delineations provided by an expert cardiologist and four other registration algorithms. The segmentation approach yielded the following results over the cardiac cycle: a mean absolute difference of 1.01 (0.21) mm, a Hausdorff distance of 4.41 (1.43) mm, and a Dice overlap score of 0.93 (0.02). Conclusions: The method performed well compared to the four other registration algorithms.