The BigCode community, an open-scientific collaboration working on the responsible development of Large Language Models for Code (Code LLMs), introduces StarCoder and StarCoderBase: 15.5B parameter models with 8K context length, infilling capabilities and fast large-batch inference enabled by multi-query attention. StarCoderBase is trained on 1 trillion tokens sourced from The Stack, a large collection of permissively licensed GitHub repositories with inspection tools and an opt-out process. We fine-tuned StarCoderBase on 35B Python tokens, resulting in the creation of StarCoder. We perform the most comprehensive evaluation of Code LLMs to date and show that StarCoderBase outperforms every open Code LLM that supports multiple programming languages and matches or outperforms the OpenAI code-cushman-001 model. Furthermore, StarCoder outperforms every model that is fine-tuned on Python, can be prompted to achieve 40\% pass@1 on HumanEval, and still retains its performance on other programming languages. We take several important steps towards a safe open-access model release, including an improved PII redaction pipeline and a novel attribution tracing tool, and make the StarCoder models publicly available under a more commercially viable version of the Open Responsible AI Model license.
We study the conjectured relationship between the implicit regularization in neural networks, trained with gradient-based methods, and rank minimization of their weight matrices. Previously, it was proved that for linear networks (of depth 2 and vector-valued outputs), gradient flow (GF) w.r.t. the square loss acts as a rank minimization heuristic. However, understanding to what extent this generalizes to nonlinear networks is an open problem. In this paper, we focus on nonlinear ReLU networks, providing several new positive and negative results. On the negative side, we prove (and demonstrate empirically) that, unlike the linear case, GF on ReLU networks may no longer tend to minimize ranks, in a rather strong sense (even approximately, for "most" datasets of size 2). On the positive side, we reveal that ReLU networks of sufficient depth are provably biased towards low-rank solutions in several reasonable settings.