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Ankit Satpute, Andre Greiner-Petter, Noah Gießing, Isabel Beckenbach, Moritz Schubotz, Olaf Teschke, Akiko Aizawa, Bela Gipp

Plagiarism is a pressing concern, even more so with the availability of large language models. Existing plagiarism detection systems reliably find copied and moderately reworded text but fail for idea plagiarism, especially in mathematical science, which heavily uses formal mathematical notation. We make two contributions. First, we establish a taxonomy of mathematical content reuse by annotating potentially plagiarised 122 scientific document pairs. Second, we analyze the best-performing approaches to detect plagiarism and mathematical content similarity on the newly established taxonomy. We found that the best-performing methods for plagiarism and math content similarity achieve an overall detection score (PlagDet) of 0.06 and 0.16, respectively. The best-performing methods failed to detect most cases from all seven newly established math similarity types. Outlined contributions will benefit research in plagiarism detection systems, recommender systems, question-answering systems, and search engines. We make our experiment's code and annotated dataset available to the community: https://github.com/gipplab/Taxonomy-of-Mathematical-Plagiarism

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Moritz Schubotz, Eloi Ferrer, Johannes Stegmüller, Daniel Mietchen, Olaf Teschke, Larissa Pusch, Tim OF Conrad

Mathematical world knowledge is a fundamental component of Wikidata. However, to date, no expertly curated knowledge graph has focused specifically on contemporary mathematics. Addressing this gap, the Mathematical Research Data Initiative (MaRDI) has developed a comprehensive knowledge graph that links multimodal research data in mathematics. This encompasses traditional research data items like datasets, software, and publications and includes semantically advanced objects such as mathematical formulas and hypotheses. This paper details the abilities of the MaRDI knowledge graph, which is based on Wikibase, leading up to its inaugural public release, codenamed Bravo, available on https://portal.mardi4nfdi.de.

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Felix Petersen, Moritz Schubotz, Andre Greiner-Petter, Bela Gipp

We tackle the problem of neural machine translation of mathematical formulae between ambiguous presentation languages and unambiguous content languages. Compared to neural machine translation on natural language, mathematical formulae have a much smaller vocabulary and much longer sequences of symbols, while their translation requires extreme precision to satisfy mathematical information needs. In this work, we perform the tasks of translating from LaTeX to Mathematica as well as from LaTeX to semantic LaTeX. While recurrent, recursive, and transformer networks struggle with preserving all contained information, we find that convolutional sequence-to-sequence networks achieve 95.1% and 90.7% exact matches, respectively.

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Ankit Satpute, André Greiner-Petter, Moritz Schubotz, Norman Meuschke, Akiko Aizawa, Bela Gipp

This demo paper presents the first tool to annotate the reuse of text, images, and mathematical formulae in a document pair -- TEIMMA. Annotating content reuse is particularly useful to develop plagiarism detection algorithms. Real-world content reuse is often obfuscated, which makes it challenging to identify such cases. TEIMMA allows entering the obfuscation type to enable novel classifications for confirmed cases of plagiarism. It enables recording different reuse types for text, images, and mathematical formulae in HTML and supports users by visualizing the content reuse in a document pair using similarity detection methods for text and math.

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Bela Gipp, André Greiner-Petter, Moritz Schubotz, Norman Meuschke

This project investigated new approaches and technologies to enhance the accessibility of mathematical content and its semantic information for a broad range of information retrieval applications. To achieve this goal, the project addressed three main research challenges: (1) syntactic analysis of mathematical expressions, (2) semantic enrichment of mathematical expressions, and (3) evaluation using quality metrics and demonstrators. To make our research useful for the research community, we published tools that enable researchers to process mathematical expressions more effectively and efficiently.

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Philipp Scharpf, Moritz Schubotz, Howard S. Cohl, Corinna Breitinger, Bela Gipp

Citation-based Information Retrieval (IR) methods for scientific documents have proven effective for IR applications, such as Plagiarism Detection or Literature Recommender Systems in academic disciplines that use many references. In science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, researchers often employ mathematical concepts through formula notation to refer to prior knowledge. Our long-term goal is to generalize citation-based IR methods and apply this generalized method to both classical references and mathematical concepts. In this paper, we suggest how mathematical formulas could be cited and define a Formula Concept Retrieval task with two subtasks: Formula Concept Discovery (FCD) and Formula Concept Recognition (FCR). While FCD aims at the definition and exploration of a 'Formula Concept' that names bundled equivalent representations of a formula, FCR is designed to match a given formula to a prior assigned unique mathematical concept identifier. We present machine learning-based approaches to address the FCD and FCR tasks. We then evaluate these approaches on a standardized test collection (NTCIR arXiv dataset). Our FCD approach yields a precision of 68% for retrieving equivalent representations of frequent formulas and a recall of 72% for extracting the formula name from the surrounding text. FCD and FCR enable the citation of formulas within mathematical documents and facilitate semantic search and question answering as well as document similarity assessments for plagiarism detection or recommender systems.

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Philipp Scharpf, Moritz Schubotz, Andreas Spitz, Andre Greiner-Petter, Bela Gipp

Since the COVID-19 outbreak, the use of digital learning or education platforms has significantly increased. Teachers now digitally distribute homework and provide exercise questions. In both cases, teachers need to continuously develop novel and individual questions. This process can be very time-consuming and should be facilitated and accelerated both through exchange with other teachers and by using Artificial Intelligence (AI) capabilities. To address this need, we propose a multilingual Wikimedia framework that allows for collaborative worldwide teacher knowledge engineering and subsequent AI-aided question generation, test, and correction. As a proof of concept, we present >>PhysWikiQuiz<<, a physics question generation and test engine. Our system (hosted by Wikimedia at https://physwikiquiz.wmflabs.org) retrieves physics knowledge from the open community-curated database Wikidata. It can generate questions in different variations and verify answer values and units using a Computer Algebra System (CAS). We evaluate the performance on a public benchmark dataset at each stage of the system workflow. For an average formula with three variables, the system can generate and correct up to 300 questions for individual students based on a single formula concept name as input by the teacher.

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Philipp Scharpf, Moritz Schubotz, Bela Gipp

The increasing number of questions on Question Answering (QA) platforms like Math Stack Exchange (MSE) signifies a growing information need to answer math-related questions. However, there is currently very little research on approaches for an open data QA system that retrieves mathematical formulae using their concept names or querying formula identifier relationships from knowledge graphs. In this paper, we aim to bridge the gap by presenting data mining methods and benchmark results to employ Mathematical Entity Linking (MathEL) and Unsupervised Formula Labeling (UFL) for semantic formula search and mathematical question answering (MathQA) on the arXiv preprint repository, Wikipedia, and Wikidata, which is part of the Wikimedia ecosystem of free knowledge. Based on different types of information needs, we evaluate our system in 15 information need modes, assessing over 7,000 query results. Furthermore, we compare its performance to a commercial knowledge-base and calculation-engine (Wolfram Alpha) and search-engine (Google). The open source system is hosted by Wikimedia at https://mathqa.wmflabs.org. A demovideo is available at purl.org/mathqa.

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Moritz Schubotz, Ankit Satpute, Andre Greiner-Petter, Akiko Aizawa, Bela Gipp

Small to medium-scale data science experiments often rely on research software developed ad-hoc by individual scientists or small teams. Often there is no time to make the research software fast, reusable, and open access. The consequence is twofold. First, subsequent researchers must spend significant work hours building upon the proposed hypotheses or experimental framework. In the worst case, others cannot reproduce the experiment and reuse the findings for subsequent research. Second, suppose the ad-hoc research software fails during often long-running computationally expensive experiments. In that case, the overall effort to iteratively improve the software and rerun the experiments creates significant time pressure on the researchers. We suggest making caching an integral part of the research software development process, even before the first line of code is written. This article outlines caching recommendations for developing research software in data science projects. Our recommendations provide a perspective to circumvent common problems such as propriety dependence, speed, etc. At the same time, caching contributes to the reproducibility of experiments in the open science workflow. Concerning the four guiding principles, i.e., Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, and Reusability (FAIR), we foresee that including the proposed recommendation in a research software development will make the data related to that software FAIRer for both machines and humans. We exhibit the usefulness of some of the proposed recommendations on our recently completed research software project in mathematical information retrieval.

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