A noise-corrupted image often requires interpolation. Given a linear denoiser and a linear interpolator, when should the operations be independently executed in separate steps, and when should they be combined and jointly optimized? We study joint denoising / interpolation of images from a mixed graph filtering perspective: we model denoising using an undirected graph, and interpolation using a directed graph. We first prove that, under mild conditions, a linear denoiser is a solution graph filter to a maximum a posteriori (MAP) problem regularized using an undirected graph smoothness prior, while a linear interpolator is a solution to a MAP problem regularized using a directed graph smoothness prior. Next, we study two variants of the joint interpolation / denoising problem: a graph-based denoiser followed by an interpolator has an optimal separable solution, while an interpolator followed by a denoiser has an optimal non-separable solution. Experiments show that our joint denoising / interpolation method outperformed separate approaches noticeably.
Data collected by Earth-observing (EO) satellites are often afflicted by cloud cover. Detecting the presence of clouds -- which is increasingly done using deep learning -- is crucial preprocessing in EO applications. In fact, advanced EO satellites perform deep learning-based cloud detection on board the satellites and downlink only clear-sky data to save precious bandwidth. In this paper, we highlight the vulnerability of deep learning-based cloud detection towards adversarial attacks. By optimising an adversarial pattern and superimposing it into a cloudless scene, we bias the neural network into detecting clouds in the scene. Since the input spectra of cloud detectors include the non-visible bands, we generated our attacks in the multispectral domain. This opens up the potential of multi-objective attacks, specifically, adversarial biasing in the cloud-sensitive bands and visual camouflage in the visible bands. We also investigated mitigation strategies against the adversarial attacks. We hope our work further builds awareness of the potential of adversarial attacks in the EO community.
This report describes eighteen projects that explored how commercial cloud computing services can be utilized for scientific computation at national laboratories. These demonstrations ranged from deploying proprietary software in a cloud environment to leveraging established cloud-based analytics workflows for processing scientific datasets. By and large, the projects were successful and collectively they suggest that cloud computing can be a valuable computational resource for scientific computation at national laboratories.