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Mayank Singh

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Unlocking Model Insights: A Dataset for Automated Model Card Generation

Sep 22, 2023
Shruti Singh, Hitesh Lodwal, Husain Malwat, Rakesh Thakur, Mayank Singh

Language models (LMs) are no longer restricted to ML community, and instruction-tuned LMs have led to a rise in autonomous AI agents. As the accessibility of LMs grows, it is imperative that an understanding of their capabilities, intended usage, and development cycle also improves. Model cards are a popular practice for documenting detailed information about an ML model. To automate model card generation, we introduce a dataset of 500 question-answer pairs for 25 ML models that cover crucial aspects of the model, such as its training configurations, datasets, biases, architecture details, and training resources. We employ annotators to extract the answers from the original paper. Further, we explore the capabilities of LMs in generating model cards by answering questions. Our initial experiments with ChatGPT-3.5, LLaMa, and Galactica showcase a significant gap in the understanding of research papers by these aforementioned LMs as well as generating factual textual responses. We posit that our dataset can be used to train models to automate the generation of model cards from paper text and reduce human effort in the model card curation process. The complete dataset is available on

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Modeling interdisciplinary interactions among Physics, Mathematics & Computer Science

Sep 19, 2023
Rima Hazra, Mayank Singh, Pawan Goyal, Bibhas Adhikari, Animesh Mukherjee

Interdisciplinarity has over the recent years have gained tremendous importance and has become one of the key ways of doing cutting edge research. In this paper we attempt to model the citation flow across three different fields -- Physics (PHY), Mathematics (MA) and Computer Science (CS). For instance, is there a specific pattern in which these fields cite one another? We carry out experiments on a dataset comprising more than 1.2 million articles taken from these three fields. We quantify the citation interactions among these three fields through temporal bucket signatures. We present numerical models based on variants of the recently proposed relay-linking framework to explain the citation dynamics across the three disciplines. These models make a modest attempt to unfold the underlying principles of how citation links could have been formed across the three fields over time.

* Accepted at Journal of Physics: Complexity 
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Metric@CustomerN: Evaluating Metrics at a Customer Level in E-Commerce

Jul 31, 2023
Mayank Singh, Emily Ray, Marc Ferradou, Andrea Barraza-Urbina

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Accuracy measures such as Recall, Precision, and Hit Rate have been a standard way of evaluating Recommendation Systems. The assumption is to use a fixed Top-N to represent them. We propose that median impressions viewed from historical sessions per diner be used as a personalized value for N. We present preliminary exploratory results and list future steps to improve upon and evaluate the efficacy of these personalized metrics.

* Accepted to evalRS 2023@KDD 
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Analogy-Forming Transformers for Few-Shot 3D Parsing

Apr 27, 2023
Nikolaos Gkanatsios, Mayank Singh, Zhaoyuan Fang, Shubham Tulsiani, Katerina Fragkiadaki

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We present Analogical Networks, a model that encodes domain knowledge explicitly, in a collection of structured labelled 3D scenes, in addition to implicitly, as model parameters, and segments 3D object scenes with analogical reasoning: instead of mapping a scene to part segments directly, our model first retrieves related scenes from memory and their corresponding part structures, and then predicts analogous part structures for the input scene, via an end-to-end learnable modulation mechanism. By conditioning on more than one retrieved memories, compositions of structures are predicted, that mix and match parts across the retrieved memories. One-shot, few-shot or many-shot learning are treated uniformly in Analogical Networks, by conditioning on the appropriate set of memories, whether taken from a single, few or many memory exemplars, and inferring analogous parses. We show Analogical Networks are competitive with state-of-the-art 3D segmentation transformers in many-shot settings, and outperform them, as well as existing paradigms of meta-learning and few-shot learning, in few-shot settings. Analogical Networks successfully segment instances of novel object categories simply by expanding their memory, without any weight updates. Our code and models are publicly available in the project webpage:

* ICLR 2023 
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MMT: A Multilingual and Multi-Topic Indian Social Media Dataset

Apr 02, 2023
Dwip Dalal, Vivek Srivastava, Mayank Singh

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Social media plays a significant role in cross-cultural communication. A vast amount of this occurs in code-mixed and multilingual form, posing a significant challenge to Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools for processing such information, like language identification, topic modeling, and named-entity recognition. To address this, we introduce a large-scale multilingual, and multi-topic dataset (MMT) collected from Twitter (1.7 million Tweets), encompassing 13 coarse-grained and 63 fine-grained topics in the Indian context. We further annotate a subset of 5,346 tweets from the MMT dataset with various Indian languages and their code-mixed counterparts. Also, we demonstrate that the currently existing tools fail to capture the linguistic diversity in MMT on two downstream tasks, i.e., topic modeling and language identification. To facilitate future research, we will make the anonymized and annotated dataset available in the public domain.

* EACL Workshop C3NLP 2023  
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MUTANT: A Multi-sentential Code-mixed Hinglish Dataset

Feb 23, 2023
Rahul Gupta, Vivek Srivastava, Mayank Singh

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The multi-sentential long sequence textual data unfolds several interesting research directions pertaining to natural language processing and generation. Though we observe several high-quality long-sequence datasets for English and other monolingual languages, there is no significant effort in building such resources for code-mixed languages such as Hinglish (code-mixing of Hindi-English). In this paper, we propose a novel task of identifying multi-sentential code-mixed text (MCT) from multilingual articles. As a use case, we leverage multilingual articles from two different data sources and build a first-of-its-kind multi-sentential code-mixed Hinglish dataset i.e., MUTANT. We propose a token-level language-aware pipeline and extend the existing metrics measuring the degree of code-mixing to a multi-sentential framework and automatically identify MCT in the multilingual articles. The MUTANT dataset comprises 67k articles with 85k identified Hinglish MCTs. To facilitate future research, we make the publicly available.

* Accepted in Findings of EACL 
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BLOOM: A 176B-Parameter Open-Access Multilingual Language Model

Nov 09, 2022
Teven Le Scao, Angela Fan, Christopher Akiki, Ellie Pavlick, Suzana Ilić, Daniel Hesslow, Roman Castagné, Alexandra Sasha Luccioni, François Yvon, Matthias Gallé, Jonathan Tow, Alexander M. Rush, Stella Biderman, Albert Webson, Pawan Sasanka Ammanamanchi, Thomas Wang, Benoît Sagot, Niklas Muennighoff, Albert Villanova del Moral, Olatunji Ruwase, Rachel Bawden, Stas Bekman, Angelina McMillan-Major, Iz Beltagy, Huu Nguyen, Lucile Saulnier, Samson Tan, Pedro Ortiz Suarez, Victor Sanh, Hugo Laurençon, Yacine Jernite, Julien Launay, Margaret Mitchell, Colin Raffel, Aaron Gokaslan, Adi Simhi, Aitor Soroa, Alham Fikri Aji, Amit Alfassy, Anna Rogers, Ariel Kreisberg Nitzav, Canwen Xu, Chenghao Mou, Chris Emezue, Christopher Klamm, Colin Leong, Daniel van Strien, David Ifeoluwa Adelani, Dragomir Radev, Eduardo González Ponferrada, Efrat Levkovizh, Ethan Kim, Eyal Bar Natan, Francesco De Toni, Gérard Dupont, Germán Kruszewski, Giada Pistilli, Hady Elsahar, Hamza Benyamina, Hieu Tran, Ian Yu, Idris Abdulmumin, Isaac Johnson, Itziar Gonzalez-Dios, Javier de la Rosa, Jenny Chim, Jesse Dodge, Jian Zhu, Jonathan Chang, Jörg Frohberg, Joseph Tobing, Joydeep Bhattacharjee, Khalid Almubarak, Kimbo Chen, Kyle Lo, Leandro Von Werra, Leon Weber, Long Phan, Loubna Ben allal, Ludovic Tanguy, Manan Dey, Manuel Romero Muñoz, Maraim Masoud, María Grandury, Mario Šaško, Max Huang, Maximin Coavoux, Mayank Singh, Mike Tian-Jian Jiang, Minh Chien Vu, Mohammad A. Jauhar, Mustafa Ghaleb, Nishant Subramani, Nora Kassner, Nurulaqilla Khamis, Olivier Nguyen, Omar Espejel, Ona de Gibert, Paulo Villegas, Peter Henderson, Pierre Colombo, Priscilla Amuok, Quentin Lhoest, Rheza Harliman, Rishi Bommasani, Roberto Luis López, Rui Ribeiro, Salomey Osei, Sampo Pyysalo, Sebastian Nagel, Shamik Bose, Shamsuddeen Hassan Muhammad, Shanya Sharma, Shayne Longpre, Somaieh Nikpoor, Stanislav Silberberg, Suhas Pai, Sydney Zink, Tiago Timponi Torrent, Timo Schick, Tristan Thrush, Valentin Danchev, Vassilina Nikoulina, Veronika Laippala, Violette Lepercq, Vrinda Prabhu, Zaid Alyafeai, Zeerak Talat, Arun Raja, Benjamin Heinzerling, Chenglei Si, Elizabeth Salesky, Sabrina J. Mielke, Wilson Y. Lee, Abheesht Sharma, Andrea Santilli, Antoine Chaffin, Arnaud Stiegler, Debajyoti Datta, Eliza Szczechla, Gunjan Chhablani, Han Wang, Harshit Pandey, Hendrik Strobelt, Jason Alan Fries, Jos Rozen, Leo Gao, Lintang Sutawika, M Saiful Bari, Maged S. Al-shaibani, Matteo Manica, Nihal Nayak, Ryan Teehan, Samuel Albanie, Sheng Shen, Srulik Ben-David, Stephen H. Bach, Taewoon Kim, Tali Bers, Thibault Fevry, Trishala Neeraj, Urmish Thakker, Vikas Raunak, Xiangru Tang, Zheng-Xin Yong, Zhiqing Sun, Shaked Brody, Yallow Uri, Hadar Tojarieh, Adam Roberts, Hyung Won Chung, Jaesung Tae, Jason Phang, Ofir Press, Conglong Li, Deepak Narayanan, Hatim Bourfoune, Jared Casper, Jeff Rasley, Max Ryabinin, Mayank Mishra, Minjia Zhang, Mohammad Shoeybi, Myriam Peyrounette, Nicolas Patry, Nouamane Tazi, Omar Sanseviero, Patrick von Platen, Pierre Cornette, Pierre François Lavallée, Rémi Lacroix, Samyam Rajbhandari, Sanchit Gandhi, Shaden Smith, Stéphane Requena, Suraj Patil, Tim Dettmers, Ahmed Baruwa, Amanpreet Singh, Anastasia Cheveleva, Anne-Laure Ligozat, Arjun Subramonian, Aurélie Névéol, Charles Lovering, Dan Garrette, Deepak Tunuguntla, Ehud Reiter, Ekaterina Taktasheva, Ekaterina Voloshina, Eli Bogdanov, Genta Indra Winata, Hailey Schoelkopf, Jan-Christoph Kalo, Jekaterina Novikova, Jessica Zosa Forde, Jordan Clive, Jungo Kasai, Ken Kawamura, Liam Hazan, Marine Carpuat, Miruna Clinciu, Najoung Kim, Newton Cheng, Oleg Serikov, Omer Antverg, Oskar van der Wal, Rui Zhang, Ruochen Zhang, Sebastian Gehrmann, Shani Pais, Tatiana Shavrina, Thomas Scialom, Tian Yun, Tomasz Limisiewicz, Verena Rieser, Vitaly Protasov, Vladislav Mikhailov, Yada Pruksachatkun, Yonatan Belinkov, Zachary Bamberger, Zdeněk Kasner, Alice Rueda, Amanda Pestana, Amir Feizpour, Ammar Khan, Amy Faranak, Ana Santos, Anthony Hevia, Antigona Unldreaj, Arash Aghagol, Arezoo Abdollahi, Aycha Tammour, Azadeh HajiHosseini, Bahareh Behroozi, Benjamin Ajibade, Bharat Saxena, Carlos Muñoz Ferrandis, Danish Contractor, David Lansky, Davis David, Douwe Kiela, Duong A. Nguyen, Edward Tan, Emi Baylor, Ezinwanne Ozoani, Fatima Mirza, Frankline Ononiwu, Habib Rezanejad, Hessie Jones, Indrani Bhattacharya, Irene Solaiman, Irina Sedenko, Isar Nejadgholi, Jesse Passmore, Josh Seltzer, Julio Bonis Sanz, Karen Fort, Livia Dutra, Mairon Samagaio, Maraim Elbadri, Margot Mieskes, Marissa Gerchick, Martha Akinlolu, Michael McKenna, Mike Qiu, Muhammed Ghauri, Mykola Burynok, Nafis Abrar, Nazneen Rajani, Nour Elkott, Nour Fahmy, Olanrewaju Samuel, Ran An, Rasmus Kromann, Ryan Hao, Samira Alizadeh, Sarmad Shubber, Silas Wang, Sourav Roy, Sylvain Viguier, Thanh Le, Tobi Oyebade, Trieu Le, Yoyo Yang, Zach Nguyen, Abhinav Ramesh Kashyap, Alfredo Palasciano, Alison Callahan, Anima Shukla, Antonio Miranda-Escalada, Ayush Singh, Benjamin Beilharz, Bo Wang, Caio Brito, Chenxi Zhou, Chirag Jain, Chuxin Xu, Clémentine Fourrier, Daniel León Periñán, Daniel Molano, Dian Yu, Enrique Manjavacas, Fabio Barth, Florian Fuhrimann, Gabriel Altay, Giyaseddin Bayrak, Gully Burns, Helena U. Vrabec, Imane Bello, Ishani Dash, Jihyun Kang, John Giorgi, Jonas Golde, Jose David Posada, Karthik Rangasai Sivaraman, Lokesh Bulchandani, Lu Liu, Luisa Shinzato, Madeleine Hahn de Bykhovetz, Maiko Takeuchi, Marc Pàmies, Maria A Castillo, Marianna Nezhurina, Mario Sänger, Matthias Samwald, Michael Cullan, Michael Weinberg, Michiel De Wolf, Mina Mihaljcic, Minna Liu, Moritz Freidank, Myungsun Kang, Natasha Seelam, Nathan Dahlberg, Nicholas Michio Broad, Nikolaus Muellner, Pascale Fung, Patrick Haller, Ramya Chandrasekhar, Renata Eisenberg, Robert Martin, Rodrigo Canalli, Rosaline Su, Ruisi Su, Samuel Cahyawijaya, Samuele Garda, Shlok S Deshmukh, Shubhanshu Mishra, Sid Kiblawi, Simon Ott, Sinee Sang-aroonsiri, Srishti Kumar, Stefan Schweter, Sushil Bharati, Tanmay Laud, Théo Gigant, Tomoya Kainuma, Wojciech Kusa, Yanis Labrak, Yash Shailesh Bajaj, Yash Venkatraman, Yifan Xu, Yingxin Xu, Yu Xu, Zhe Tan, Zhongli Xie, Zifan Ye, Mathilde Bras, Younes Belkada, Thomas Wolf

Large language models (LLMs) have been shown to be able to perform new tasks based on a few demonstrations or natural language instructions. While these capabilities have led to widespread adoption, most LLMs are developed by resource-rich organizations and are frequently kept from the public. As a step towards democratizing this powerful technology, we present BLOOM, a 176B-parameter open-access language model designed and built thanks to a collaboration of hundreds of researchers. BLOOM is a decoder-only Transformer language model that was trained on the ROOTS corpus, a dataset comprising hundreds of sources in 46 natural and 13 programming languages (59 in total). We find that BLOOM achieves competitive performance on a wide variety of benchmarks, with stronger results after undergoing multitask prompted finetuning. To facilitate future research and applications using LLMs, we publicly release our models and code under the Responsible AI License.

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Tables to LaTeX: structure and content extraction from scientific tables

Oct 31, 2022
Pratik Kayal, Mrinal Anand, Harsh Desai, Mayank Singh

Scientific documents contain tables that list important information in a concise fashion. Structure and content extraction from tables embedded within PDF research documents is a very challenging task due to the existence of visual features like spanning cells and content features like mathematical symbols and equations. Most existing table structure identification methods tend to ignore these academic writing features. In this paper, we adapt the transformer-based language modeling paradigm for scientific table structure and content extraction. Specifically, the proposed model converts a tabular image to its corresponding LaTeX source code. Overall, we outperform the current state-of-the-art baselines and achieve an exact match accuracy of 70.35 and 49.69% on table structure and content extraction, respectively. Further analysis demonstrates that the proposed models efficiently identify the number of rows and columns, the alphanumeric characters, the LaTeX tokens, and symbols.

* 10 pages, published in IJDAR'22. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2105.14426 
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The Inefficiency of Language Models in Scholarly Retrieval: An Experimental Walk-through

Mar 29, 2022
Shruti Singh, Mayank Singh

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Language models are increasingly becoming popular in AI-powered scientific IR systems. This paper evaluates popular scientific language models in handling (i) short-query texts and (ii) textual neighbors. Our experiments showcase the inability to retrieve relevant documents for a short-query text even under the most relaxed conditions. Additionally, we leverage textual neighbors, generated by small perturbations to the original text, to demonstrate that not all perturbations lead to close neighbors in the embedding space. Further, an exhaustive categorization yields several classes of orthographically and semantically related, partially related, and completely unrelated neighbors. Retrieval performance turns out to be more influenced by the surface form rather than the semantics of the text.

* 21 pages. To appear in Findings of ACL 2022 
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COMPARE: A Taxonomy and Dataset of Comparison Discussions in Peer Reviews

Aug 09, 2021
Shruti Singh, Mayank Singh, Pawan Goyal

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Comparing research papers is a conventional method to demonstrate progress in experimental research. We present COMPARE, a taxonomy and a dataset of comparison discussions in peer reviews of research papers in the domain of experimental deep learning. From a thorough observation of a large set of review sentences, we build a taxonomy of categories in comparison discussions and present a detailed annotation scheme to analyze this. Overall, we annotate 117 reviews covering 1,800 sentences. We experiment with various methods to identify comparison sentences in peer reviews and report a maximum F1 Score of 0.49. We also pretrain two language models specifically on ML, NLP, and CV paper abstracts and reviews to learn informative representations of peer reviews. The annotated dataset and the pretrained models are available at .

* 4 pages, JCDL 2021 
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