Learning from demonstration (LfD) is a popular technique that uses expert demonstrations to learn robot control policies. However, the difficulty in acquiring expert-quality demonstrations limits the applicability of LfD methods: real-world data collection is often costly, and the quality of the demonstrations depends greatly on the demonstrator's abilities and safety concerns. A number of works have leveraged data augmentation (DA) to inexpensively generate additional demonstration data, but most DA works generate augmented data in a random fashion and ultimately produce highly suboptimal data. In this work, we propose Guided Data Augmentation (GuDA), a human-guided DA framework that generates expert-quality augmented data. The key insight of GuDA is that while it may be difficult to demonstrate the sequence of actions required to produce expert data, a user can often easily identify when an augmented trajectory segment represents task progress. Thus, the user can impose a series of simple rules on the DA process to automatically generate augmented samples that approximate expert behavior. To extract a policy from GuDA, we use off-the-shelf offline reinforcement learning and behavior cloning algorithms. We evaluate GuDA on a physical robot soccer task as well as simulated D4RL navigation tasks, a simulated autonomous driving task, and a simulated soccer task. Empirically, we find that GuDA enables learning from a small set of potentially suboptimal demonstrations and substantially outperforms a DA strategy that samples augmented data randomly.
Language models demonstrate both quantitative improvement and new qualitative capabilities with increasing scale. Despite their potentially transformative impact, these new capabilities are as yet poorly characterized. In order to inform future research, prepare for disruptive new model capabilities, and ameliorate socially harmful effects, it is vital that we understand the present and near-future capabilities and limitations of language models. To address this challenge, we introduce the Beyond the Imitation Game benchmark (BIG-bench). BIG-bench currently consists of 204 tasks, contributed by 442 authors across 132 institutions. Task topics are diverse, drawing problems from linguistics, childhood development, math, common-sense reasoning, biology, physics, social bias, software development, and beyond. BIG-bench focuses on tasks that are believed to be beyond the capabilities of current language models. We evaluate the behavior of OpenAI's GPT models, Google-internal dense transformer architectures, and Switch-style sparse transformers on BIG-bench, across model sizes spanning millions to hundreds of billions of parameters. In addition, a team of human expert raters performed all tasks in order to provide a strong baseline. Findings include: model performance and calibration both improve with scale, but are poor in absolute terms (and when compared with rater performance); performance is remarkably similar across model classes, though with benefits from sparsity; tasks that improve gradually and predictably commonly involve a large knowledge or memorization component, whereas tasks that exhibit "breakthrough" behavior at a critical scale often involve multiple steps or components, or brittle metrics; social bias typically increases with scale in settings with ambiguous context, but this can be improved with prompting.