Traditionally, large language models have been either trained on general web crawls or domain-specific data. However, recent successes of generative large language models, have shed light on the benefits of cross-domain datasets. To examine the significance of prioritizing data diversity over quality, we present a German dataset comprising texts from five domains, along with another dataset aimed at containing high-quality data. Through training a series of models ranging between 122M and 750M parameters on both datasets, we conduct a comprehensive benchmark on multiple downstream tasks. Our findings demonstrate that the models trained on the cross-domain dataset outperform those trained on quality data alone, leading to improvements up to $4.45\%$ over the previous state-of-the-art. The models are available at https://huggingface.co/ikim-uk-essen
The impression section of a radiology report summarizes important radiology findings and plays a critical role in communicating these findings to physicians. However, the preparation of these summaries is time-consuming and error-prone for radiologists. Recently, numerous models for radiology report summarization have been developed. Nevertheless, there is currently no model that can summarize these reports in multiple languages. Such a model could greatly improve future research and the development of Deep Learning models that incorporate data from patients with different ethnic backgrounds. In this study, the generation of radiology impressions in different languages was automated by fine-tuning a model, publicly available, based on a multilingual text-to-text Transformer to summarize findings available in English, Portuguese, and German radiology reports. In a blind test, two board-certified radiologists indicated that for at least 70% of the system-generated summaries, the quality matched or exceeded the corresponding human-written summaries, suggesting substantial clinical reliability. Furthermore, this study showed that the multilingual model outperformed other models that specialized in summarizing radiology reports in only one language, as well as models that were not specifically designed for summarizing radiology reports, such as ChatGPT.
We present MedShapeNet, a large collection of anatomical shapes (e.g., bones, organs, vessels) and 3D surgical instrument models. Prior to the deep learning era, the broad application of statistical shape models (SSMs) in medical image analysis is evidence that shapes have been commonly used to describe medical data. Nowadays, however, state-of-the-art (SOTA) deep learning algorithms in medical imaging are predominantly voxel-based. In computer vision, on the contrary, shapes (including, voxel occupancy grids, meshes, point clouds and implicit surface models) are preferred data representations in 3D, as seen from the numerous shape-related publications in premier vision conferences, such as the IEEE/CVF Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR), as well as the increasing popularity of ShapeNet (about 51,300 models) and Princeton ModelNet (127,915 models) in computer vision research. MedShapeNet is created as an alternative to these commonly used shape benchmarks to facilitate the translation of data-driven vision algorithms to medical applications, and it extends the opportunities to adapt SOTA vision algorithms to solve critical medical problems. Besides, the majority of the medical shapes in MedShapeNet are modeled directly on the imaging data of real patients, and therefore it complements well existing shape benchmarks comprising of computer-aided design (CAD) models. MedShapeNet currently includes more than 100,000 medical shapes, and provides annotations in the form of paired data. It is therefore also a freely available repository of 3D models for extended reality (virtual reality - VR, augmented reality - AR, mixed reality - MR) and medical 3D printing. This white paper describes in detail the motivations behind MedShapeNet, the shape acquisition procedures, the use cases, as well as the usage of the online shape search portal: https://medshapenet.ikim.nrw/
In this paper, we introduce a completion framework to reconstruct the geometric shapes of various anatomies, including organs, vessels and muscles. Our work targets a scenario where one or multiple anatomies are missing in the imaging data due to surgical, pathological or traumatic factors, or simply because these anatomies are not covered by image acquisition. Automatic reconstruction of the missing anatomies benefits many applications, such as organ 3D bio-printing, whole-body segmentation, animation realism, paleoradiology and forensic imaging. We propose two paradigms based on a 3D denoising auto-encoder (DAE) to solve the anatomy reconstruction problem: (i) the DAE learns a many-to-one mapping between incomplete and complete instances; (ii) the DAE learns directly a one-to-one residual mapping between the incomplete instances and the target anatomies. We apply a loss aggregation scheme that enables the DAE to learn the many-to-one mapping more effectively and further enhances the learning of the residual mapping. On top of this, we extend the DAE to a multiclass completor by assigning a unique label to each anatomy involved. We evaluate our method using a CT dataset with whole-body segmentations. Results show that our method produces reasonable anatomy reconstructions given instances with different levels of incompleteness (i.e., one or multiple random anatomies are missing). Codes and pretrained models are publicly available at https://github.com/Jianningli/medshapenet-feedback/ tree/main/anatomy-completor
At the Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC) in June 2023, Apple introduced the Vision Pro. The Vision Pro is a Mixed Reality (MR) headset, more specifically it is a Virtual Reality (VR) device with an additional Video See-Through (VST) capability. The VST capability turns the Vision Pro also into an Augmented Reality (AR) device. The AR feature is enabled by streaming the real world via cameras to the (VR) screens in front of the user's eyes. This is of course not unique and similar to other devices, like the Varjo XR-3. Nevertheless, the Vision Pro has some interesting features, like an inside-out screen that can show the headset wearers' eyes to "outsiders" or a button on the top, called "Digital Crown", that allows you to seamlessly blend digital content with your physical space by turning it. In addition, it is untethered, except for the cable to the battery, which makes the headset more agile, compared to the Varjo XR-3. This could actually come closer to the "Ultimate Display", which Ivan Sutherland had already sketched in 1965. Not available to the public yet, like the Ultimate Display, we want to take a look into the crystal ball in this perspective to see if it can overcome some clinical challenges that - especially - AR still faces in the medical domain, but also go beyond and discuss if the Vision Pro could support clinicians in essential tasks to spend more time with their patients.
The accurate diagnosis on pathological subtypes for lung cancer is of significant importance for the follow-up treatments and prognosis managements. In this paper, we propose self-generating hybrid feature network (SGHF-Net) for accurately classifying lung cancer subtypes on computed tomography (CT) images. Inspired by studies stating that cross-scale associations exist in the image patterns between the same case's CT images and its pathological images, we innovatively developed a pathological feature synthetic module (PFSM), which quantitatively maps cross-modality associations through deep neural networks, to derive the "gold standard" information contained in the corresponding pathological images from CT images. Additionally, we designed a radiological feature extraction module (RFEM) to directly acquire CT image information and integrated it with the pathological priors under an effective feature fusion framework, enabling the entire classification model to generate more indicative and specific pathologically related features and eventually output more accurate predictions. The superiority of the proposed model lies in its ability to self-generate hybrid features that contain multi-modality image information based on a single-modality input. To evaluate the effectiveness, adaptability, and generalization ability of our model, we performed extensive experiments on a large-scale multi-center dataset (i.e., 829 cases from three hospitals) to compare our model and a series of state-of-the-art (SOTA) classification models. The experimental results demonstrated the superiority of our model for lung cancer subtypes classification with significant accuracy improvements in terms of accuracy (ACC), area under the curve (AUC), and F1 score.
Flatness of the loss curve around a model at hand has been shown to empirically correlate with its generalization ability. Optimizing for flatness has been proposed as early as 1994 by Hochreiter and Schmidthuber, and was followed by more recent successful sharpness-aware optimization techniques. Their widespread adoption in practice, though, is dubious because of the lack of theoretically grounded connection between flatness and generalization, in particular in light of the reparameterization curse - certain reparameterizations of a neural network change most flatness measures but do not change generalization. Recent theoretical work suggests that a particular relative flatness measure can be connected to generalization and solves the reparameterization curse. In this paper, we derive a regularizer based on this relative flatness that is easy to compute, fast, efficient, and works with arbitrary loss functions. It requires computing the Hessian only of a single layer of the network, which makes it applicable to large neural networks, and with it avoids an expensive mapping of the loss surface in the vicinity of the model. In an extensive empirical evaluation we show that this relative flatness aware minimization (FAM) improves generalization in a multitude of applications and models, both in finetuning and standard training. We make the code available at github.
It is an open secret that ImageNet is treated as the panacea of pretraining. Particularly in medical machine learning, models not trained from scratch are often finetuned based on ImageNet-pretrained models. We posit that pretraining on data from the domain of the downstream task should almost always be preferred instead. We leverage RadNet-12M, a dataset containing more than 12 million computed tomography (CT) image slices, to explore the efficacy of self-supervised pretraining on medical and natural images. Our experiments cover intra- and cross-domain transfer scenarios, varying data scales, finetuning vs. linear evaluation, and feature space analysis. We observe that intra-domain transfer compares favorably to cross-domain transfer, achieving comparable or improved performance (0.44% - 2.07% performance increase using RadNet pretraining, depending on the experiment) and demonstrate the existence of a domain boundary-related generalization gap and domain-specific learned features.