Adversarial attacks are a major concern in security-centered applications, where malicious actors continuously try to mislead Machine Learning (ML) models into wrongly classifying fraudulent activity as legitimate, whereas system maintainers try to stop them. Adversarially training ML models that are robust against such attacks can prevent business losses and reduce the work load of system maintainers. In such applications data is often tabular and the space available for attackers to manipulate undergoes complex feature engineering transformations, to provide useful signals for model training, to a space attackers cannot access. Thus, we propose a new form of adversarial training where attacks are propagated between the two spaces in the training loop. We then test this method empirically on a real world dataset in the domain of credit card fraud detection. We show that our method can prevent about 30% performance drops under moderate attacks and is essential under very aggressive attacks, with a trade-off loss in performance under no attacks smaller than 7%.
Many real-world datasets have an underlying dynamic graph structure, where entities and their interactions evolve over time. Machine learning models should consider these dynamics in order to harness their full potential in downstream tasks. Previous approaches for graph representation learning have focused on either sampling k-hop neighborhoods, akin to breadth-first search, or random walks, akin to depth-first search. However, these methods are computationally expensive and unsuitable for real-time, low-latency inference on dynamic graphs. To overcome these limitations, we propose graph-sprints a general purpose feature extraction framework for continuous-time-dynamic-graphs (CTDGs) that has low latency and is competitive with state-of-the-art, higher latency models. To achieve this, a streaming, low latency approximation to the random-walk based features is proposed. In our framework, time-aware node embeddings summarizing multi-hop information are computed using only single-hop operations on the incoming edges. We evaluate our proposed approach on three open-source datasets and two in-house datasets, and compare with three state-of-the-art algorithms (TGN-attn, TGN-ID, Jodie). We demonstrate that our graph-sprints features, combined with a machine learning classifier, achieve competitive performance (outperforming all baselines for the node classification tasks in five datasets). Simultaneously, graph-sprints significantly reduce inference latencies, achieving close to an order of magnitude speed-up in our experimental setting.
Monitoring the behavior of automated real-time stream processing systems has become one of the most relevant problems in real world applications. Such systems have grown in complexity relying heavily on high dimensional input data, and data hungry Machine Learning (ML) algorithms. We propose a flexible system, Feature Monitoring (FM), that detects data drifts in such data sets, with a small and constant memory footprint and a small computational cost in streaming applications. The method is based on a multi-variate statistical test and is data driven by design (full reference distributions are estimated from the data). It monitors all features that are used by the system, while providing an interpretable features ranking whenever an alarm occurs (to aid in root cause analysis). The computational and memory lightness of the system results from the use of Exponential Moving Histograms. In our experimental study, we analyze the system's behavior with its parameters and, more importantly, show examples where it detects problems that are not directly related to a single feature. This illustrates how FM eliminates the need to add custom signals to detect specific types of problems and that monitoring the available space of features is often enough.
Predicting the health of components in complex dynamic systems such as an automobile poses numerous challenges. The primary aim of such predictive systems is to use the high-dimensional data acquired from different sensors and predict the state-of-health of a particular component, e.g., brake pad. The classical approach involves selecting a smaller set of relevant sensor signals using feature selection and using them to train a machine learning algorithm. However, this fails to address two prominent problems: (1) sensors are susceptible to failure when exposed to extreme conditions over a long periods of time; (2) sensors are electrical devices that can be affected by noise or electrical interference. Using the failed and noisy sensor signals as inputs largely reduce the prediction accuracy. To tackle this problem, it is advantageous to use the information from all sensor signals, so that the failure of one sensor can be compensated by another. In this work, we propose an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based framework to exploit the information from a large number of signals. Secondly, our framework introduces a data augmentation approach to perform accurate predictions in spite of noisy signals. The plausibility of our framework is validated on real life industrial application from Robert Bosch GmbH.